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历年考研英语试题命题特点及规律word版


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第六部分 写作 B 部分命题的特点和规律 在研究生英语入学考试中,英语写作历来是考生的一个难点。英语写作主要考查考生 运用英语的综合能力,其中包括用英语组织篇章段落的能力、英语的语句表达能力以及语 法的综合运用能力。要做好写作部分的试题,要求考生不仅具有较扎实的语言基础,而且 还要掌握一些写作的基本技能,如:信息的分析和综合能力以及丰富的想像力。英文写作 是一个最能体现考生书面英语水平和技能的测试项目。 一、写作 B 部分命题的基本指导思想 考试大纲对写作的评价目标 根据《大纲》规定:考生应根据题目以及写作提纲或规定的情境、图表、图画等写出 大约 200 个词的短文。具体要求概括如下: (1)内容切题,包含提纲或图画的全部要点和信息。所谓内容切题是指所写的短文切合 题意,即正确理解题目的意思。误解题目或曲解题意,写出来的短文答非所问就是跑题。 另外,也要注意不漏掉提纲或图画中的要点和信息,如果提纲中给出了三个要点,考生却 只写了两个要点,显然从内容上就不切题了。因此,审题是短文写作成败的关键。考生一 定要认真阅读写作要求,仔细琢磨题意,弄清题目以及写作提纲或规定情境、图表的内容 范围,依此表达题目限定的中心思想,做到内容切题。 (2)表达清楚,意思连贯。表达清楚是指清楚地表达思想,而不是含糊其辞,使人不得 要领。在写作过程中,考生应思路清晰,运用恰当的语句表达意思。此外,还要根据题目 要求,围绕中心提出论点,摆出论据,使短文层次分明,合乎逻辑。意思连贯是指句子与 句子、段落与段落之间衔接自然,整体性强。考生应熟练运用连接词语来正确表达一个观 点与另一观点之间的关系。 (3)用词正确,句式有变化,语言比较规范。语言比较规范是指在遣词造句中应符合英 语语法和习惯用法。首先在词语运用上能够选用恰当的、能够准确表达意义的词,并能显 示出一定的词汇量(用词面较宽);其次,写出的句子符合语法规范,没有重大语法错误,句 式上多变,不要只用简单句或陈述句,应适当增加句子形式的多样性,不仅有短句,也有 长句,不仅有简单句,也有并列句、复合句等等。 (4)文章的长度符合要求。长度是指短文的字数。符合要求的字数应是 160 至 200 个词 左右。 现将大纲对写作部分的评分标准摘录如下: (1)20~17 分。内容切题,包括题中所列三个方面的内容;清楚表达其内涵,文字连贯; 句式有变化,句子结构和用词正确。文章长度符合要求。 (2)16~13 分。内容切题,包括题中所列三个方面的内容;比较清楚地表达其内涵,文 字基本连贯;句式有一定变化,句子结构和用词无重大错误;文章长度符合要求。 (3)12~9 分。内容切题,基本包含题中所列三个方面的内容;基本清楚地表达其内涵, 句子结构和用词无重大错误。文章长度符合要求。 (4)8~5 分。内容基本切题,基本包含题中所列三个方面的内容;语句可以理解,但有
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较多的句子结构和用词错误。文章长度基本符合要求。 (5)4~1 分。基本按照要求写作,但只有少数句子可以理解。 (6)0 分。文不切题,语句混乱,无法理解。 二、写作 B 部分材料的选择 (一)选择材料的特点 纵观历年试卷,写作的题目多集中在社会伦理、人生哲理、学校教育、人际关系交往、 娱乐方式、健康和生活方式等方面。最近几年的命题多与当前的社会现实和热点问题有关, 要求考生对社会现象和社会的经济、文化生活有所关注和思考,并形成自己的见解。 从命题内容来看,其材料特点有: 1. 普遍性:发生在身边的事情,各种考生都有一定的体验,可以有感而发。比如 2003 年的温室里的花和 2002 年的中国与国际的交流。不管你身处何处,这些现象和变化都是中 国人共同体验的。考题不会考查一部分考生熟悉,而另一部分考生不了解的内容。对于社 会生活中的敏感问题,一般不会涉及。 2. 教育性:论题有警示作用的,可让考生作深层思考。比如,有关人生哲理的 2008 年 “合作的重要性”,2007 年的“乐观心态是成功的关键”,2004 年的“终点又是新的 起点”。 3. 社会性:社会关心的、典型的事。如 2009 年的题目是网络的“近”与“远”,2006 年的题目是偶像崇拜,2005 年则对赡养老人问题展开讨论,2003 年的试题既可以讨论加入 世界贸易组织后的中国经济发展的现实问题,也可以谈孩子的教育问题,2002 年的题目是 中外文化交流问题。因此考生平时应关注社会性的问题,加深思考深度,并且阅读英文报 纸,积累相关词汇。在近 10 年的考题中三分之一是正面现象的分析论证,如 2004 年的终 点又是起点,2002 年的“国际化交流”,2001 年的“希望工程或爱心工程”。而其余的考 题关注的是社会中存在的一些问题,也就是说三分之二的题目是有关负面问题的分析解决。 (二)作文的体裁 从体裁上看,近 10 年的作文都为论说文。论说文的特点是说议结合,一部分为对论题 的说明,一部分为议论,或者夹叙夹议。这种写作的难点在于将说明或描写与议论有机地 结合起来,形成一个衔接自然的文章。 下表为近十年考题特点的小结。 时间 2009 年 2008 年 2007 年 2006 年 中心思想 网络的“近”与“远” 合作的重要性 乐观心态是成功的关键 偶像崇拜 题材 社会生活 人生哲理 人生哲理 社会生活 类型 图画式作文 图画式作文 图画式作文 图画式作文

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2005 年 2004 年 2003 年 2002 年 2001 年 2000 年

年轻人应该赡养父母 终点又是新的起点 温室里的花经不起风雨 中国与世界的文化交流 困难的时候,人人都应该献爱 心 自然生态平衡遭破坏

社会伦理 人生哲理 教育或经济问题 文化与交流 社会伦理 环境保护

图画式作文 图画式作文 图画式作文 图画式作文 图画式作文 图画式作文

三、写作 B 部分题型透 (一)图画式作文 从 2000 到 2009 年这十年间 B 部分写作考的都是图画式作文。从命题者的角度来说, 这是为了更好地考查考生的写作能力,如:理解、推断和书面组织。由于它只允许考生在规 定的范围内进行描述、分析,这就避免考试时套用考试前背好的范文的现象的发生。图画常 以漫画或照片的形式出现, 有的图画还有题目和提示性文字, 这是为了帮助考生理解图画的 内容。从应试的角度看,审题、谋篇、语言是写好作文的三要素。命题,图画及题中的文字 说明是用于审题的;而“写作要求”往往是针对布局谋篇的,同时写作要求也影响语言的分配。 1. 图画式作文的审题 第一,仔细研读作文指令,从题目中找出中心词,分析修饰词,从而准确地抓住题目的 中心。考生首先要搞清楚作文的要求,如:是否有标题?标题是什么?是否有提纲?文章字数 是多少等。然后,从作文的题目中理解命题者命题的主要意图。如 2002 年考题,题目为 “Culture—National and International”。首先,中心词为“文化”,观察图片发现是一个身着中 国民族服装的西方女孩的照片。从女孩那灿烂的笑容上我们不难看出她的心里是多么的欣 喜,而这种欣喜来自于对中国文化的感受。而后再看修饰词“本国的,国际的”,这进一步缩 小写作范围为文化的交流, 而这种交流反映了两方面的情况: 一方面是中国文化对世界文化 的渗透;另一方面是世界对中国文化的了解与接受。 第二,考生要注意题目中的文字说明,看文字说明要做到看清主、谓、宾。比如,2001 年考题是“爱心是一盏灯,在越黑暗的地方越明亮”。很多考生写到了爱心的比较上,哪里要 多给一些爱心,哪里要少给一些爱心,这就是偏题。之所以偏题的原因就是没有抓住句子主 语。这一句的主语是什么?自然是“爱心”。再看其谓语、宾语,可以看出本题是提倡在需要 的地方献爱心。 第三,要认真解读图画,因为图画是作文的信息基础。如果说题目与文字提供了中心的 骨,那么图画就提供了中心的肉。图画作文的中心思想通常体现在图中人物的动作、表情或 画龙点睛的一句或几句话中。考生可以在抓住题目与说明文字的基础上,对图画进行抽象, 点出图画的寓意。如 2009 年考题,我们看到了网络既拉近了人们的距离也在人们之间竖起 了隔膜。 2006 年考题, 我们看到了对明星盲目的崇拜。 2002 年考题, 我们可以看到欣喜—— 了解中国文化的欣喜。 2. 图画式作文的谋篇 作文的题干中会提出两到三项写作要求, 考生在谋篇时要抓住这些要求。 虽然图画式作 文的写作要求看似变化莫测,但实际上只涉及 5 个方面:描述图画、指明寓意、分析原因、 联系实际、给出建议。不仅历年的考查内容有限,考查内容的个数也很相似,一般来说是考 查 3 个考点。即使只有两条要求,实际上它常包含一个隐性条件,所以考生也要涉及 3 点才
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能把文章写透彻。 比如 2009 年的考题要求: describe the drawing briefly 2)explain its intended 1) meaning 3) give your comments。由于这些写作要求类似于提纲, 图画式作文也可以当做三段 式的提纲作文。第一段用来描述图画并揭示出其寓意(寓意用一句话来概括即可),第二段分 析原因,最后一段发表评论或提出建议。篇幅的比例分配,第二、三段应是文章的重点,应 占 2/3。 3. 图画式作文的语言组织 作文的语言应长短句兼顾,句式变化多样,当然语法的正确性是必需的。如果实在掌握 或控制不好语言,可以采用长短句按 1∶3 的比例或反之。句子写完后,也可自问一下是否 用了分词结构,不定式,感叹句等多种句式。如没有,可适当调整句式。在组织语言中要特 别注意连贯性,连贯性不仅从连词、语句的使用中体现出来,更重要的是语意的相互照应。 考生要注意自己的作文中心是否与主题句紧密连接, 例子是否直接支持主题, 号召是否呼应 了主题和例子,等等。 4. 图画式作文的描写 描写是再现客观事物, 其目的是使人感受到具体的情况。 考研作文中的描写应注意的问 题:第一,围绕主题,描写最突出的特征和能够支持主旨的细节;第二,描写要按照一定的 逻辑顺序进行(如时间、空间等);第三,描写力求生动、形象、准确。如: Waller,Texas,is a small town for all other forms of civilization. There is no movie theater, no bowling alley, certainly no mall. This place doesn? t even have a Wal? Mart. Residents of and Waller have all heard the saying: “There are only two things for kids to do in Waller,and one of them is drinking.” This may seem humorous at first,but,unfortunately,there is some truth to it. 描述是为一定中心服务的。本段通过描述 Waller 精神生活的缺乏引出文章中心:娱乐 活动缺乏带来酗酒等社会问题。 (二)图表式作文 图表作文是通过提供的一组或几组数据来反映某个趋势或某一问题、 现象。 要求考生对 图表中的相关数据进行描述、分析和评论,并得出合乎逻辑的结论。它是将数据、形象信息 转换为文字信息的过程。 图表作文要求的不是对图表的简单叙述, 而是抓住图表所反映的主要问题。 因为图表式 作文所要讨论的现象和问题都隐含在数据里, 所以考生常会感到比较难写。 因此要想抓住主 旨,就要分析图表中那些最有代表性、规律性的数字,或变化大的数字。它的写作误区是报 流水账, 对数据面面俱到, 却不能指出图表所反映的中心, 也不能利用数据进行有力的论证。 常见的图表类型有:①表格,它表示多种事物的相互关系;②曲线,它常表示事物的变 化趋势;③柱状,它用来表示几种事物的变化情况及相互关系;④饼状,表示各事物在总体中 所占的比例及相互关系。 表格和曲线作文的审题与其他类型的作文相比难度较大, 主要表现在考生不易准确、 全 面地把握图表显示的信息。这类作文提供了大量数据,但题目往往要求少用所给数据,避免 简单罗列数据。一般用一般现在时,如果图表提供了时间参数,则应采用相应的时态。 图表作文的写作步骤:①分析图表及说明性文字;②分析数字所反映的主旨,得出中心 论点;③列提纲;④写作。 关于图表式作文的描述方法: 第一种情况:横向对比。描述这种图表需要对比各数据间的差别,主要以数值、倍数、
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排列等方式来描述。 常用句型: ①A department has the lowest sales figure in the three departments,followed by the B department and C department. ②The figure of A is about twice as much as that of B. ③The income from sales is 10 million,making the company the highest one in sales. ④The A’s income reaches 20 million,which is in the middle of the list. 第二种情况: 纵向说明。 只要指出不同单位之间的比较, 描述如何增减, 增减幅度如何, 反映出什么问题,就可以了。描述这样的图表时,可用以下词汇和句型: ①The rise lasted for two weeks and then began to level off in June. ②The trend/increase slowed down in May. ③The trend of increasing working hours began to gain momentum in January. (开始走强) ④Prices went up by 50%, but the number of smokers maintained. ⑤It picked up speed at the end of this year. 常用词汇及表达法:increase,decrease,rise,fall,slow down,level off,pick up speed, maintain,drop,the trend reverses,decline,gain/lose momentum, a steady/ substantial(实质性 的)increase,a minor/slight/dramatic drop。 第三种情况:纵向、横向均有的说明。这种图表不仅要注意同一事物的变化趋势,也要 注意不同事物之间的差距及变化。 表示百分比常用句型: ①It accounts for 30% of the total population. ②There are 4 members with master’s degrees,making up nearly a quarter of the workforce. ③Doctors make up 40% of the staff in the hospital. 表示增长率的常用句型: ①The figure of income increased by about 200% as compared with ten years ago. ②The number of students has reached 200,indicating a rise of 4%,compared to last year. Example: The two bar charts indicate the annual emissions of CO2 per capita and populations of seven countries. Industrialized countries certainly contribute more to the CO2 levels in the atmosphere, with the US at the top —3.93 tons per capita per year. It is followed by Japan and the UK,with emissions of 3.32 tons and 2.15 tons respectively. Though these countries usually don’t have large populations,they consume disproportionately large quantities of natural resources and therefore are more blamed for global warming. Developing countries, the other hand, on usually have lower levels of emissions. China,for example,has the largest population in the list. Yet its emission of CO2 per capita is only 980 kg,being about a quarter of the emission level of the US. Another good example is Korea. Its population is the smallest in the list,so is its per capita emission of
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CO2? The charts show no correlation between emission levels of CO2 and the sizes of population. 本文比较了 7 个国家二氧化碳排放的变化幅度,及相互对比关系。 其它图表式作文的常用句型: ①The curves show__in a certain year. ②It can be seen that__(sth)fluctuates quite substantially in this year. ③It just increases slightly. ④The pie charts show the changes__in some place in 1999? ⑤It can be seen from the chart that the proportions of A and B are going down, though the falling level of the latter is a lot higher/lower than that of the former. ⑥The expansion is more noticeable during the second half of the 8--year period. ⑦It falls from 30% of the staff in 1990 to 20% in 1998 and then the trend reverses, finishing at 34% in 2000. ⑧And A is higher than B except for the months June to September.__drops dramatically from about__in January to__in June. ⑨The falling trend levels off from__to__,__(sth) goes all the way up to__and then it begins to drop to. (三)提纲式命题作文 提纲式作文既有论说文,也有议论文。它主要考查的内容为:说明主题,分析原因或解 释做法。例如:1995 年的试题“希望工程”中提纲的要求是:(1) Present situation. (2) Necessity of the project. (3)My suggestion.它要求考生解释说明“希望工程”, 分析开展希望工程的意义和 原因,联系考生自己提出一些建议或具体的做法。从提纲的要求上看,提纲式命题作文对联 系社会的要求不是很多,写作难度也相对较小。它要求考生在正确理解题意的基础上,根据 提纲去选择素材。提纲提供了每段的段落大意,在开展论述时不能偏离提纲或改变内容。提 纲一般为三部分,考生应针对提纲采用三段的结构来开展文章。如: Nowadays,China’s economy is fast developing. People’s living standard has improved a lot. In some areas,however,there are still many people living below the poverty line. They have difficulties for the very basics like food and clothes,let alone getting good education. What can we do to help these less developed areas in our country? I think we can do the following things. First of all,the government and our society must pay more attention to these less developed areas. The government should spend more money on the basic construction projects in these areas instead of spending it on cultural and artistic projects in cities. It should also encourage some private enterprises and companies to donate to these poor areas. Secondly, transportation is very important in less developed areas. We should help them build more railways and more roads so that the local people can benefit from the convenient transportation. It can also promote their communication with developed areas. Finally,technology is necessary in developing economy in these areas. Poor farmers should be taught technology and new skills and should have easier access to money in the bank,such as getting loans to start businesses. All in all,so long as we continue our efforts to help these less developed areas,these areas
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will shake off poverty sooner or later. 再如: Directions: Write an article to an English newspaper discussing laid-off workers and re-employment in China. In your article you should (1) describe briefly the present situation of unemployment, (2) analyze the causes of it, (3) give advice for re-employment. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. 范文: There is an increasing number of workers,not only the middle-aged but also the young who are laid off from their jobs. Some laid-offs thus become poverty-stricken and can hardly support their children to continue their studies. And those employed are also worried a great deal that someday they may lose their jobs. This phenomenon has caught great attention in society. In order to maintain social stability,many re-employment service centers are being set up to give the laid-offs a helping hand. The increasing number of laid-off workers is caused mainly by the industrial restructuring and economic development across the country. In market economy,the enterprises have to reduce workforce or the redundant. Another reason is that some enterprises claim bankruptcy owing to their poor management and backward product structure,which made millions of workers jobless. Laborers from the countryside are also contributing to the increasing numbers of the laid-offs. Off-job doesn’t mean no job. There are plenty of opportunities for the laid-off workers to be re-employed. Take Shanghai for example,the city is developing into an international economic center,shifting its old labor intensive industries out of the city and replacing them with new enterprises. But there is a fundamental requirement for the laid-offs if they want to be enrolled in these new posts. They must have certain skills. To many laid-off workers,they have to get job training to make themselves qualified and competitive in the human resources market. 四、写作 B 部分的主要写作方法 (一)主题句的写法 1.主题句的特点 主题句是全段的核心。它由中心词和限定词两部分组成。中心词说明讨论的主题(topic) 是什么,限定词是把主题具体化,它限定讨论的内容,范围和展开方式等。例如: The first key factor to success is diligence, (what) which simply means no waste of time. 主题 限定词 限定词 I think you will make the decision according to the following factors.(how) 主题 限定词 考生可通过回答 How?Why? Where? What?等问题来把主题具体化,选定限定词。主题 句的展开通常会出现如下问题: (1)过于空洞。只给出主题,未指出写作内容和展开方式。如: The relationship is not good.此句可以通过回答 what kind of relationships,to what extent 等问题将之具体化。可改为:The relationship between family members is not as close as before. 这样主题句限定了关系的范围, 文章后面的开展方式——侧重于现在关系的不好, 又可以用 对比的方式展开。再如: Clothes play a part in our life.此句没有限定写作的大体内容或方式,(是衣服的时尚性,
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还是实用性),读者不能预测下文的展开方向。通过回答“how”这样的问题,我们可将主题句 具体化。改为:Clothes play a critical part in the conclusions we reach by providing clues to who people are。修改后的句子点出了文章的写作内容——根据服装,可以判断人。 (2)过于具体。太具体的主题句使段落后面没有展开的余地。如: He thought highly of her and helped her to find jobs of teaching at several institutions. 这种叙述性的句子,对事实的陈述过于详尽,不适合做主题句。 2.主题句的位置 (1)位于段首,也就是开门见山。把主旨放在段首,使读者对文章内容、结构等有个把 握。在应试中,这是十分行之有效的方法。如: From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We are immunized from birth against many of the dangerous diseases. A large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has increased enormously. 段首主题句清晰地点出本段的中心思想,后面从对疾病的免疫、治疗,及对疾病的攻克 三个方面说明健康医疗状况良好。读者只看段首就可抓住段落主旨。 (2)位于段中。主题句出现在中间,起到承上启下的作用,上文引出背景,下文可以用 于分析。如: Before China’s entry into the WTO,the common people were optimistic about what access would mean, believing that if joining were not beneficial, government would not have spent 15 the years negotiating for its entry. They were perhaps thinking that when the day came,the price of phone calls would be lower,and also house rents and that insurance services would be better. But they neglect the prospect of unemployment and other domestic crisis.Since China joined the WTO,some people,owing to advanced age and limited experience,may find it difficult to keep their work. 文章开始铺垫了一个对待入世的积极的期待,而中间的主题句将文风一转,引出主旨: 入世带来的消极方面。然后文章从失业开始进一步展开论证。 (3)位于段末。主题句位于段末,既可以点题,也可以总结上文,给读者留下深刻的印 象。如: Ms. Yang, aged 50,works as a cleaner in an office building,and her annual income is about 20 000 yuan.She has signed up for an English language training course,the cost of which is much more than her annual income. Why English? English-based success stories have indicated to the Chinese that English means opportunities,wealth,and prospects. 本文先举了杨女士花钱学英语的例子,然后引出问题:为什么要花如此高价学习英语。 段末给出结论,点出学习英语的重要性。结尾点题,给人以深刻的印象。 (二)段落的拓展 1.段落的作用 首先,好的段落要求每段只能有一个主题,围绕一个中心思想展开。与中心不同的观点 或无关的内容都应删去。其次,结构连贯:适当地运用过渡词指明文章内部的逻辑关系。 Example 1 Reforming and opening up have helped the villagers to live a comfortable life. (主题句) Before 1983 the village practiced a collective ownership system,whereby the villagers picked and baked tea leaves together.Life was hard and their income

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meager,so they had no incentive to work hard.“We got rich after the fields were parceled out to households in 1983,” says Sun Jinrong.Since then,the villagers have tilled their own plots.Having learned to follow the laws of the market economy and competition,their living standards have greatly improved. 段首提出中心论点:改革开放使茶农过上了好日子。后按时间顺序,先描写 1983 年以 前吃大锅饭的情形,又说改革开放后生活水平的提高。前后形成对比,充分说明论点。 Example 2 I hold the view that children can play computer games in their spare time, and the reasons are explored as follows. First, computer games should be played moderately,with the control of parents. It can help children to relax and improve their efficiency in their studies. Second,playing computer games moderately can offer children chances to develop their creativity,which is essential for their success in study. Third, playing computer games can broaden children’s knowledge. It is well-known that a machine will break down if it keeps running without a stop. Similarly, if a child keeps studying without relaxation,he will be tired out. And if a child spends all this time studying,he will become a dull boy in the ivory tower. 本段开头点出中心,然后用过渡词指出三个原因。最后加以总结。文章结构一目了然。 2.关于段落的写作方法 (1)定义法 当考生提出的概念或观点很抽象,涉及面广时,考生需要对概念进行解释,限定内容, 从而缩小讨论的焦点。如: Ambition is like choler (胆汁), which is a humour, that makes men active, earnest, full of alacrity,and stirring,if it be not stopped. But if it be stopped,and cannot have its way,it becomes angry,and malign. So ambitious men,if they find the way open for their rising,and still get forward,they’re rather busy than dangerous; but if they be checked in their desires,they become secretly discontent,and look upon men and matters,with an evil eye. 本文是对抱负/雄心的分析。而这个题目本身范围太广,因此作者先给它下了个定义, 确定讨论的方向:抱负/雄心在不同条件下表现出来的不同特性。这样就缩小了讨论范围, 确定了讨论的方向。 当然作者也可通过从句来对事物进行定义和解释,如: Hemophilia is called the bleeder’s disease because the afflicted person’s blood is unable to clot. (2)时间、空间顺序法 以事情发展的顺序,或时间的先后安排材料。在描写、分析社会变化的文章中常用顺序
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进行写作,同时也可以起到新旧对比论证的作用。如: Before a stop sign was put up, there were one hundred and twenty accidents there in a year. After a stop sign was put up,there were only forty accidents in a year. Having the stop sign there decreased the number of accidents immediately. 文章用时间上的对比来论证了竖标牌的作用。通过时间顺序安排材料,结构清晰,论证 了标牌的作用。 当图画比较复杂,而且方位较强时,考生可按照空间顺序进行描述。这样,考生既可以 对描写思路有所了解,又可使文章结构清晰。如: The kitchen was in a mess. Along the left wall were the counter and sink covered with dirty dishes and garbage. On the far wall the washing machine groaned under a load of filthy clothes. Right next to the door where I was standing,on my right, I saw a table cluttered with old newspapers,an overturned catsup bottle. At the far end of the right wall the refrigerator stood with door ajar. It was the messiest kitchen I had ever seen. (3)因果分析法 这种方法是一种分析法,在阐释观点中常用。按因果关系的不同,可以分为一因一果、 一因多果、一果多因。单一的因果关系往往用来分析简单的问题。而对于文章主要论点的分 析,应采用一因多果、一果多因的方法,这样可以全方位多个角度透彻地分析问题。如: The Beijing subway is to adopt international signs.(主题句)The Chinese characters originally used for east,west,south and north are to be replaced by the letters A,B,C and D. The subway operator explained that the four Chinese characters indicating directions no longer meet the needs of passengers,given the diversity of subway stations and increases in the number of entrances and exits.(因)Therefore,universal signs used worldwide will be adopted.(果) 文章分析了北京地铁采用国际化标志的原因,为一因一果的形式。再如: The main reason why professors should give frequent exams (果) is that when they do and when they provide feedback to students on how well they’re doing,students learn more in the course and perform better on major exams (原因 1).Moreover,If students had frequent exams in all their courses,they would have to schedule study time each week and gradually would develop a habit of frequent study (原因 2). 作者采用一果多因的方法分析了教授应经常测试学生的原因。 (4)例证法 考生可以用他人的例子,自己的经历或名人的故事作为实例,来把论点具体化。从考生 的作文中,我们可以看出,贴切、具有社会深度的例子可以有效地深化主题。为了能在考试 中很好地举例,平时应对有社会意义的例子多加积累、分类。如: It is very difficult to evaluate another person’s performance objectively. For
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example,Jane recently wrote irresponsible remarks about her instructor because she was failing the course. Her friend Sam wrote a great description of the same instructor because he was receiving an A in the course. Both Jane and Sam were not fairly evaluating the instructor. They were influenced by the grades they were earning and were biased in their judgement. 本段通过两个例子的对比,论证了很难客观地评价一个人。 (5)分类法 分类法是根据不同的类别来讨论,这可以使很复杂的内容变得层次清晰,论述更全面。 如: “The wolf has come!” No one knows who gave the first warning,but it made a large impact on two main groups: the common people and entrepreneurs. The common people hoped that it would mean more inexpensive commodities,while entrepreneurs worried about encirclement by transnational companies. 本段通过两种不同类型的人对同一问题的不同看法, 表明不同的中国人对入世的不同期 待和看法。 (6)对比和对照法 对比法比较的是事物的相同点;对照法比较的是事物的不同点。通过对比或对照熟悉和 不熟悉的事物,考生可以了解不熟悉的事物;通过对比或对照相同点或不同点,考生可以更 准确地评价事物。 要点式:先讲解两个事物在一点上的相同或不 主题式:先讲解一个事物的各个方面,再讲 同点,再去讲解他们在另一点上的异同之处 第一段 第二段 A1 A2 B1 B2 解另一个事物 第一段 第二段 A1 B1 A2 B2

如: As a creature,I eat; as a man,I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of my mind,they are in a way quite similar. To keep ourselves alive,we need all kinds of nutrition. 1) Eating is the most important way by which we can get starch,protein,vitamin,sugar,fat,and some trace elements. 2) On the other hand,we eat not only because we have to do so, but also because we enjoy doing so. Having satisfied our hunger,eating can then be a kind of enjoyment. The color,the smell,and the taste of the food are considered as important as its nutritive value. Very often we eat some food not because it is nourishing but simply because welike it. Similarly,to enrich our minds,we need information and knowledge,which can be obtained through reading.1) Reading is one of the most important ways of learning. Without reading our minds will become empty like that of an animal. 2) Sometimes,
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we take reading as a pastime,and we relax and learn at the same time. Since recreation is involved,we will naturally have a partiality for some particular kinds of books, just as we do for certain kind of food. Besides,there are other similarities between eating and reading. 1)We should not eat too much without digesting and assimilating,nor should we read too much without understanding and remembering. 2) While we are eating, we should leave out the rotten part of the food which will do harm to our health; and while we are reading, we should be able to reject the poisonous content in a book,for it will poison our minds. So,eat sensibly and read sensibly to give yourself a strong body and a healthy mind. 本文比较了吃饭与读书的异同。第二、三段采用的是主题法比较它们的相同之处,第四 段是通过要点式来进行比较的。 (三)文章开头与结尾的写作方法 1.文章开头的写法 (1)引言法 在文章开头引用具有代表性的名人名言,既可吸引读者,又可以点题。如: “Be the first to be concerned with the world’s troubles and the last to enjoy worldly happiness.”Fan Zhongyan,a scholar of the Song Dynasty,expresses eloquently the lofty spirit of Chinese intellectuals in his maxim. On realizing that the cause of China’s lack of development was its backwardness in science and technology,many modern scholars accordingly went to Western countries to study. 本段以“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”引出主旨,给人以深刻的印象。 (2)提问法 如: Why are foreigners so glad that barriers have been dismantled? China has a population of 1.2 billion,and US $1 000 billion of GDP. It is a country with one of the fastest economic growth rates in the world. China’s entry into the WTO will therefore enable all economic entities in the world to expand trade and investment,bringing benefits to enterprises,consumers and workers in these countries. (3)数据引用 引用恰当的数据,使文章开头简洁、 有力。 对于表格式作文,常从描述、分析表格入手。 如: It is reported that from 1995 to 1998, number of cars in Shanghai rose at the rate of 20%, the but the average speed of cars dropped at the rate of 30%. It should be noticed that 43% of added cars during the period of 1995~1998 is private cars. Therefore some people point out that the most effective way to solve the traffic problem is to ban private cars. But I think they have gone extremely far away. 本段通过引用数据对私车增多及车速下降这一现象进行了详细的描述。 通过分析, 作者

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自然地引出观点:完全禁止私车是偏激的做法。 (4)概要法 开门见山,首先提出文章的主要观点,然后通过举例或逻辑推理等方法加以详述。如: This report is divided into three main sections: what equipment you need,how to use equipment,and how to maintain equipment. 2.文章结尾的写法 (1)总结法 总结式结尾的作用在于回顾全文、突出中心,使读者对文章形成一个整体的把握。要想 写好总结式结尾,就要求文章内容本身重点突出、中心明确,这样回顾起来才有点可抓。在 写总结式结尾时,对于论证中提到的要点应该点到为止,而重在重申论点。如: On the whole,life in China has become better after 30 years,Ordinary people now enjoy a more colorful life than before. Though some problems have arisen in the progress,we still can’t deny this positive trend. (2)建议法 针对文章前面的分析, 提出相对应的号召或解决方案, 表示对将来的期待或鼓动大家采 取相应的行动。如: It is essential that effective measures should be taken to redress such inequality. It is high time that we should urge an immediate end to this phenomenon. (3)反问法 在末尾加上反问,可使文章引人思考。如: Psychological health of the youth should be concerned by our society. On being advised by his school that he should leave after failing several exams,a Beijing university student decided to commit suicide,but first killed his father and grandmother so as to spare their grief at his own death. A 13-year-old Sichuan Province girl ran away from home recently in pursuit of her favorite movie star,and has not been seen since. Isn’t there anything wrong with psychological health of the youth? 用反问句加深主题:年轻人的心理健康有些问题,应该得到更多关注。 (4)引语法 用引语归结全文,有画龙点睛的作用,使文章既生动,又有说服力。如: All of us wish for a bright future and hope to master a useful career. Those who persist in remaining idle will never fulfill their ambitions, “No pains,no gains” is a motto with much meaning. Meditate and live by it. 以“不劳不得”做总结,很好地归纳了上文,给人以警示。 (5)首尾呼应法 在首尾两处点题,可以使段落的中心突出。如: China’s reforms have brought China a lot of benefits and have changed Chinese people’s life
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a great deal. A lively atmosphere has prevailed in all walks of fields throughout the country. The national economy has been thriving and national defense has ever been consolidated. In science and technology,quite a lot of achievements have been made. Certainly,the progress made in all fields has led to the raise of living standard for Chinese people. 首尾均强调了一系列有利于社会进步的改革给中国人的生活带来的改变,重点突出。 (四)短文写作中常用的关联词 1.表示列举和举例 first of all, one thing, another, begin with, for for to first, second, next, the first (second) in place,furthermore,moreover,beyond that,also,besides,in addition,what is more,such as, finally; for example,for instance 等。 2.表示原因 since,because (of),as,for,owing to,result from,due to,on account of,on the ground of,as a result of 等。 3.表示时间顺序 at the same time,as soon as,so far,since,then,until,when,meanwhile,shortly,later, lately,after a while,at that time,before,earlier,presently,in the meantime,formerly 等。 4.表示空间顺序 close to, close at hand(近在身旁), next to, down, beyond, far, against(对着), the opposite on side(相对的),opposite to, above,across,across from,around,at the bottom,before,behind, below, beneath, between, the middle of, the distance, the center of, in in in farther, the left/right on 等。 5.表示重复 in other words, again, has been pointed out, repeat, I have said above, as to as once again, after all, indeed, fact, in truly, course, of chiefly, especially, certainly, actually, particularly, to be sure,above all,surely,most important of all,even worse,no doubt,needless to say 等。 6.表示结果 so,then,therefore,thus,hence,consequently,as a result,accordingly,for this reason, as a consequence,on that account,it follows that 等。 7.表示总结 to sum up,in summary,to summarize,in short,in brief,to be brief,in other words,on the whole,in conclusion,to conclude 等。 8.表示对比和对照 (1)对照:but,however,yet,or,nevertheless,still,nonetheless,conversely,nor,rather, whereas,thought,on the one hand,on the other hand,on the contrary,by contrast with/to,in contrast (with/to),even though,instead,unlike,different from,instead (of),the opposite (of), unlike,although,while,but 等。
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(2)对比:similarly,likewise,like,as,at the same time,in fact,too,in the same way, in a like manner,both,each,also,compared with 等。 (五)短文写作中的经典语义过渡的模式以及必备句型 考研英语写作的题材多数同我们日常生活相关, 通常涉及事物间的比较, 要求说明其相 似性、相异性和事物之间的因果关系;有时要求考生分析事实,找出原因或解决问题的方法, 或对一个问题提出个人看法等。 所以考生在复习写作时, 要尽可能熟悉和掌握表达这些关系 的常用句型,这将对提高写作能力有较大帮助。 1.表示相似性的句型 ①Moral corruption(A)is to the State(B)as physical disease(C)is to an individual body(D).(A 之于 B 犹如 C 之于 D) ②Just as woods are indispensable to birds,so is the earth to human beings.(正如…,…也如 此) ③As far as personality is concerned,Tom (A) and Peter (B) have almost everything in common.(A 和 B 有共同之处) ④My hobby (A) is similar to his (B) in that we both like collecting records,foreign and domestic. (A 与 B 相似) ⑤As the economies of all countries are closely interrelated no country can develop in self-seclusion. The same is true of China. (The same is true of. The same can be said of... 也是如 此) 2.表示相异性的句型 ①Beijing (A) is populous and crowded, while Canberra (B) is just the opposite.(A 与 B 正相 反) ②China’s condition (A) differs from ours (B) in that China has the largest population in the world. (A 不同于 B 在于) ③While it may be true that basketball and volleyball share certain features,the excitement each arouses in the spectators is not the same.(…是不相同的) 3.表示权衡性的句型 ①It seems safe to say that the advantages of marriage outweigh the disadvantages of divorce.(利大于弊) ②Perhaps nothing can rival the pleasure from reading. (…是无与伦比的) ③There could be no doubt that job-hopping has its drawbacks as well as merits.(既有优点也 有缺点) ④Men (A)may be superior to women(B) in physical affairs. Yet,there is no difference in intelligence.(A 优于 B) ⑤People’s attitude towards drugs varies from person to person.(…是因人而异的) 4.表示过渡性的句型(承上启下,使新观点不至于显得突兀、武断)
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①Some people argue as if it is a general truth that ,I cannot agree with them for the following reasons.. But to be frank ②According to/As can be seen in figures/statistics /the findings/data released/provided by the government/an institute, . ③ There are several/many causes/reasons for this dramatic/significant

growth/change/decline/increase in . ④There are no less than three advantages in as rendered below. ⑤The reasons are chiefly as follows . ⑥Another reason why I advocate the attitude of is that. ⑦Last but not least, . ⑧What is more, . 5.表示倍数与比例关系的句型 近年来图表作文经常出现, 考生需要熟悉和掌握一些常用的句型来解释图表、 分析和表 达数据间的倍数和比例关系: ①Asia ranks first both in area and in population among the seven Continents.Europe is second to Asia in population,but in area it is the last but one. ②We all hope that a country’s population should be in proportion to its area, unfortunately the reality often goes against our will. ③A is a far larger university,being over three times as big as B. 6.引用图表内容时的过渡句型 图表式作文经常使用 as 从句做解释性描述的过渡,它的运用,可以使短文由图画的说 明解释,陡然一转,由客观说到主观,由一般说到个体,过渡自然。 ①This picture shows , , we can see in the upper half of the picture. However, lower as the half of the picture shows that .. At the beginning ②As is revealed in the graph . ③As the survey results show . ④As we could find out later in this unit,his plan was not quite as he had expected. ⑤ This table provides several important points of comparison between the two universities.As can be indicated in the table,the housing space for the staff of A in 1995 was 34 500 square meters,which nearly doubled the B’s corresponding figure. 7.描述图表常用的概括性句型 这种句子通常用于开篇和结尾。 ①This table provides,several important points of comparison between the two key universities. ②The two graphs depict the same thing seen in two different ways. The first diagram simply records . The second graph throws a new light on .
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③The key findings taken from the surveys are as follows: . ④If drivers continue to drive more carefully and further strengthen their sense of safety,the rate of accidents can be expected to decline even more dramatically in the year 1998. 8.引论或得出结论的句型 ①As the proverb goes,“ ”. It is quite understandable that . ②Along with the development of society more and more problems are brought to our attention,one of which is that . ③Admittedly,there are merits to both sides of the argument. ④Contrary to widely held belief,I believe that . ⑤Now,it is commonly believed /some people think that ,but I wonder whether . 9.表示转折的句型 ①On the surface of it,this may seem to be a good solution,but if thinking again,we would point out some drawbacks. ②At first thought,it may seem to be an attractive idea,but it does not bear closer analysis when we find . ③Superficially,it seems to be a sound solution,but when carefully weighing in the mind, we find that . ④A close inspection of these arguments would reveal how flimsy they are. ⑤The undeniable deficiency in this remark is that it is negligent of the bare fact that . ⑥However,we also cannot deny that . 10.表示解释、分析、引申的句型 ①One very strong argument for is that . ②It is an obvious fact that . ③One of the most important things about is that . ④A particularly notable case of this matter is . ⑤We may look into every possible reason,however,foremost reason for is . ⑥is mainly/ partly/ also responsible for the rise/increase/ decrease in . ⑦We may cite/quote/mention a single/common example of . ⑧A recent/nationwide study/survey/poll conducted/ taken at a university/ by scientists indicates/reveals/ suggests that . ⑨Of course,this will have some negative effects on . ⑩ is a case in point. 11.表示得出结论的句型 ①From what has been discussed above,we may safely draw the conclusion that . ②Taking into account all these factors,we may safely reach the conclusion that . ③Judging from all evidence offered,we may safely come to the conclusion that .
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④All the evidence/analysis supports a (an) sound/ unshakable/just conclusion/ view that . 12.表示建议、采取行动的句型 ①It is necessary/ essential that effective actions/ quick steps/ proper measures should be taken to prevent the situation/ correct tendency / end phenomenon. ②There is little doubt that serious/ considerable/ special attention must be called /paid /devoted to the problem /shortage of . ③It is high time that we placed/put great/special/considerable emphasis on theimprovement/ development /increase of .

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