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线上社会支持型初探以即时通讯软体MSN为


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?

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? ? MSN ? ? ? MSN ? ? ? MSN ?

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1

An Inquiry into the Types of Perceived Social Support on MSN Messenger
ABSTRACT Studies have indicated that the Internet as a communication platform is where social exchange takes place. Among the social resources transmitted through the Net, social support is by far the most important. In fact, social and information support are believed to be the main resources exchanged among online users. Nevertheless, research in terms of online social support is rare. This paper is going to examine types of social support exchanged through MSN Messenger, an instant messaging system that has mesmerized millions of people worldwide. The research is approached from a psychological perspective, focusing on the users’ subjective perceptions, meaning that social support is available if needed. The purpose is to differentiate types of online social support perceived by the users, and see if gender and social ties among users also affect what they perceive as available online social support. Results show that appraisal support, such as advice or suggestion, is what the users perceive as most available when they use MSN, second to that is the more emotion-prone type of support. Additionally, users report that they still perceive tangible support available even though there is no actual material exchange (e.g. money) on MSN. Statistics also indicate that variables such as gender and social ties do not have any profound impact on the users’ perceptions in terms of online support availability.

Keywords: Instant messaging, social support, social ties

2

?

Instant Messaging 878 (2003) 650 MSN Messenger 1 ARO ? ? IM 2004 MSN Messenger

IM

? ?

2004 ?? Fortune 2005 ? MSN MSN 7.0 MSN Spaces ? (blog) MSN (Kirkpatrick & Roth, 2005) MSN ? 2000 ? MSN IM 1111 ? 2004 ? 10 13 21 ? MSN Yahoo Messenger ? 2004/10/22 MSN 7.0 2004 ?? 2005/01/20 MSN ?? MSN MSN ? MSN ? 2001 ? ? IM ? 2002 ? ?? ? ICQ ?? ? IM ? ICQ ? 2004

?

L. Leung

Charney(1997) ?

?

??

(social resources) (Hirsch, 1981) Ridings(2000) ?
? ? ?

? 3

?

(social exchange) Goldsmith(1994)

Albrecht Burleson

? ? (well-being) ? ? ? (supportive relationships) (Albrecht, Burleson, & Goldsmith, 1994) ? ? ? (Wellman et al., 1996 Ridings, 2000) ? ?? (Burleson, Albrecht, Goldsmith, & Sarason, 1994) ? 1990) Ridings(2000) IM MSN ? ?? MSN CNET Taiwan 2003/10/02 MSN
2

?

? ?

? (Sarason, Sarason,& Pierce,

? IM

? ?MSN ? ? ?

? 1. MSN 2. 3. ? MSN ? ? ? ?

2

CNET Networks ? CNET ?

(Nasdaq: CNET) ? News.com 4

? CNET Download.com?? Computers.com

? 4. ?

? MSN ?

IM 2002)

1996 ? 11 ? ICQ MSN Messenger

ICQ Yahoo!

IM Messenger 1

(Riva, AIM(AOL

Instant Messaging)
1 IM IM

AIM (AOL Instant Messenger) ICQ Windows Messenger (MSN) Yahoo! Messenger

AOL ICQ

http://www.aol.com/aim/homenew.adp http://web.icq.com/index/ http://messenger.msn.com http://messenger.yahoo.com/

IM

?

(Internet Relay Chat

IRC)

IRC

IM (text-based) ?

? -Riva(2002) ? ? IM IM

IM ?

? ? ?

?

(user-friendly)

”username” ”screen name” (buddy list, contact list) ?
5

? ? ? (Riva, 2002) ? ? ? (Leung, 2001) ? ? 2003 ? 7 2005/01/20 MSN 7.0 ? ? ? MSN 7.0 ? 2005/01/24 ? IM ? Messenger ? ? 6.1 MSN Spaces ? ? ? IM ? (netters) ?

IM ? ? ?

? Messenger

MSN 6.0 (avatar)

?

IM IM ? IM

?? IM L. Leung 2001 ?

? 2002 ?

? ? ICQ

College student motives for chatting on ICQ Leung(2001) ICQ ? ?? (instrumental reasons) ? ? ? ? ICQ ?? Leung(2002) Loneliness, self-disclosure and ICQ (“I seek you”) use ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Leung ? ? IM ?

6

Ridings(2000) ? ?? ? 1994 ?

? ??

?

(Ridings, 2000) ? well-being, Albrecht, Burleson, & Goldsmith,

Albrecht Burleson

Goldsmith(1994) ? ? ? ?

? ?

? (Wellman et al., 1996 1.

Ridings, 2000)

? Pierce, 1990) ?

(Sarason, Sarason, & ??

(Sarason, Levine, Basham, & Sarason, 1983) Sarason (1983) ?? ? ? 20 ?? ? ??? ?? ? 19 (health-promoting) Durkheim ? ? ? ?? ? ?

Durkheim(1897) Burleson & MacGeorge, 2002 ? ? ? 1970 ? Caplan(1974)

? ? ?

7

(support system) ? 1970 ? … MacGeorge, 2002

? Hobfoll & Stokes, 1988 Sarason et al., 1983 ?

S. Cobb Burleson &



(Hobfoll & Stokes, 1988) Cobb ? ? ? MacGeorge(2002) ? Caplan ? ? ? ? ? Burleson

2. ? (3) ? (1) Caplan 1979 ? Cobb ? ? ? (1) ? (2) ?

?(morbidity) ?? ? Burleson & MacGeorge, 2002 ? ? (Gottlieb, 1981) ? ? (social ties) (Burleson, Albrecht, Goldsmith, & Sarason, 1994) Berkman Syme ?

? Sarason, 1994) (Sarason, Sarason, & Pierce, 1990) Goldsmith(1994) ?

(availability) (adequacy) ? (Burleson, Albrecht, Goldsmith, & ? Albrecht Burleson ?

8

(2) ? ? ?

?

(individual cognitive processes) (Burleson & MacGeorge, 2002) (the perceived availability of support) (perceived support) Sarason Sarason Pierce(1990) (perception) ? ? ? (Burleson & MacGeorge, 2002) Hobfoll ? ? ? Stokes(1988) ? ? ?

? ? ?

?

?

?

S. Cobb 1976 … … Cobb Burleson & MacGeorge, 2002 ? ? S. Cobb ? Gottlieb, 1985 Miller Ray(1994) ? Burleson, Albrecht, Goldsmith, & Sarason, 1994 ? ? ? (Burleson et al., 1994)

?

? ?

(3) ? (Sarason, Sarason, & Pierce, 1990)
9

?

? Albrecht Burleson ? Albrecht ?

? Goldsmith(1994) ?

Adelman(1987) ?? ? ??

?

?

? ? Albrecht Goldsmith Sarason(1994) ? ? (1)

Burleson

(2) (3)

??

(supportive communication) (Albrecht, Burleson,& Goldsmith, 1994)

(4)

? ? ? ?

? ? ?

?

? MSN MSN ? 3. ? ? ? ?

? ?

?

10

?

(multidimensional construct)( Cutrona & Russell, 1990) ? ? Cutrona Russell(1990) (informational support) ? (emotional support) (esteem support) ? (tangible aid) ? ? ? (social network support)

?

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

?

(social

integration) ? Cutrona Suhr(1994) ? (action-facilitating support) (2) ? ? ? ?
2

?

(1) ? (nurturant support) ? ? ?

?

2
?

ISEL ?

?

ISEL ? (2) (3) Cutrona Suhr(1994) ? (3) ?
11

? (1) (4) (1) ?

Derlega Barbee Winstead(1994) ? ? Hobfoll ? ? ? ? ? Albrecht, Goldsmith & Sarason, 1994) ? ? Sarason, & Pierce, 1990) ? ? ?? ? ? ? Luarn(1993) ? ? ? Stokes(1988) ?

?

? ? ?

? ? ? ? ?

? ? Wright(1999)

(Burleson, ? (Sarason, ?

CHESS CMC ? ? ? (role dimension) ?? ? ? ? (self-esteem support) ? ? presumptousness

ISEL ? ?

Mickelson(1997) ? ? ? Wright(1999) ?

? ? ? ? ?

148
12

?(perceived stress) (online support groups)

? ?

Wellman

Gulia(2002) ?

? ? CSSNs ? CSSNs

? (BBS) ?

computer supported social networks ? ? e-mail (newsgroup) ? ? (companionship) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?? 1994 Gulia, 1999)

?

?

? infrastructure Miller & Ray, (causes) (Wellman &

(Thoits, 1985) ? (Walker, Wasserman, & Wellman, 1994) Stokes(1983) ? ? ? ties nodes ?? (Stokes, 1983) ? ? ? & Gulia, 1999) ? ? ? (Walker, Wasserman, & Wellman, 1994) ? ? (strong ties) ? ? ? ? ? Haythornthwaite(2000) ? (well-rounded) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

(Wellman

13

?
? Cohen (measures) Kamarck Hoberman(1983) ? Cohen et al. (1983) Interpersonal Support Evaluation List ISEL ? ? ? ISEL 40 ? ? (the perceived availability of social support) ISEL ? ISEL ? ? ? ? ISEL ? MSN ? ? (Albrecht, Burleson, & Goldsmith, 1994) ? ? ISEL Cohen et al. (1983) ? ? ? ? MSN Walker Wasserman Wellman(1994) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ISEL ? ? ? ? (Cohen et al., 1983) ? Mermelstein ? ? ?

? ?

? ? Wellman(1992) ? ? ?

? ?

Walker Wasserman Wellman(1994) ? ? ? ISEL ? ? ? Haythornthwaite(2000) ? ?

14

? (BBS) ?2 7 ? 96.61% 塡 236 93 ? 2 228 1 93

228 ?

90 63.6%

(39.5%) ? 138 ? 27.2%

(60.5%)

? ? 77.2% 650 ? 15.4% ? 2003 20

7.0% ? 29 ?

18 ? 31~35

19~24

? ? 25~30 ? 0.4% ?

? 84.6% ? ? (4.4%) (2.6%) MSN ? 228 MSN 226 MSN ? MSN (3.5%) (1.3%) 99.1% (3.0%) ?(0.4%) MSN ? 27.71 ?? ? IM MSN IM ? ? 59.06% ? 83.3% 2.2% ? 1%(0.4%) ?

?

?

1% MSN

228 (59.6%)

IM ? ?

?

MSN ? 13.2%

?

15

MSN ? ? ? SD=0.26
3 ?

? ? ?? M=3.13 SD=0.32 M=3.06 SD=0.26 M=2.95 SD=0.26 ? M=3.02 3 MSN

3.13 .32

3.02 .26

2.95 .29

3.06 .26

? ? correlation analysis r(.250) p<.001 p<.001 r(.203) r(.196) p .001
4

r(.213) r(.234) p .001 p<.001

p .001

r(.194)

?(r) vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs.
** 0.01

.203** .194** .250** .213** .196** .234**

.002 .003 .000 .001 .003 .000

16

?

t

(Independent-samples T test)
5 MSN ?

5
t

? 3.14 ? ? ? ? 3.13 3.06 3.00 2.93 2.96 3.09 3.05 .357 .289 .314 .224 .337 .258 .279 .239 -.528 1.192 .598 .234 1.617 .107 .247 .805

? p .05

? t(1.617) p .05 t(1.192) p .05 ? ? ? ?

? t(.247) t(-.528) p .05 ? ?

MSN ?

Wellman(1992) ? ?? ? ?

? ?

(supportive) ? MSN ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 6~ 9 ?

? ? ? ? ? ?? ?? ? ?

17

6

?

?

??

? .082 22.422 22.503
7 ? ?

F .027 .101 .269 .848

3 222 225
??

? .088 15.498 15.586
8 ? ?

F .029 .070 .420 .739

3 222 225
??

? .229 18.774 19.003
9 ? ?

F .076 .085 .902 .441

3 222 225
??

? .043 14.608 14.651 ? ??? ? MSN F(.420) p .05 3 221 224 ? F(.269) p .05 F(.902) p .05 ? .014 .066

F .218 .884

? ? ? ? F(.218) p .05

ISEL ? ? (F=.457) p .05 ? ?? ? ? ? MSN

? ?? ? ? ?

?

?

18

MSN MSN (2) ? ? (3) (4) ISEL ? (Cohen et al., ?

? (1) 1983) MSN

Luarn(1993) ?? ? ? ISEL ? ? ?

?

r(.250) ? ?

p<.001 r(.213)

p<.001 ? ?

Cutrona ?

?

r(.234) p<.001 Suhr(1994) ? ? ? ?

MSN

?

? ?

?

? ?? Stokes(1988)

? ? ? ?

Hobfoll

19

? ? ? ? Ray(1994) ? ?

??

MSN ? ? ? ?? ?? ? ? ? Miller

MSN

?
? BBS ? ? ? ? MSN Miller Ray(1994) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? Hobfoll Stokes(1988) ? ? ? Albrecht Adelman(1987)
20

228 ? ?

MSN

?

?

? ? ?

MSN ? ?

?

? 83.3% ?

(personality) ? MSN ?

?

(Burleson & MacGeorge, 2002)

? ? MSN ?

?

21

?

CNET

2003 ? 10 02 MSN Messenger http://taiwan.cnet.com/news/software/0,2000064574,20083921,00.htm 2005 ? 1 20 ? ? 43

2004 ? 10 22 ? http://tw.news.yahoo.com/041022/139q8.html

?

MSN

2003 ? 9 23 ? http://www.insightxplorer.com/news/news_09_23.html (2004) 878 (2004) ?? 114-120 ? 878 24 – ? 122-124 ? msn

?

2005 ? 1 E1

Albrecht, T. L., Adelman, M. B. (1987). Epilogue: New directions for communication research. In T. L. Albrecht & M. B. Adelman (Eds.). Communicating social support. Newbury Park: Sage. Albrecht, T. L., Burleson, B. R., & Goldsmith, D. (1994). Supportive communication. In M. L. Knapp & G. R. Miller (Eds.). Handbook of interpersonal communication (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Burleson, B.R., Albrecht, T. L., Goldsmith, D. J., & Sarason, I. G. (1994). Introduction:
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Hirsch, B. J. (1981). Social networks and the coping process: Creating personal communities. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.). Social networks and social support. CA: Sage. Hobfoll, S. E., & Stokes, J. P. (1988). The process and mechanics of social support. In S. Duck (Ed.). Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research and interventions. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Kirkpatrick, D., & Roth, D. (2005). 10 tech trends to watch in 2005. Fortune, 151, 31-37. Leung, L. (2001). College student motives for chatting on ICQ. New Media & Society, 3, 483-500. Leung, L. (2002). Loneliness, self-disclosure, and ICQ (“I seek you”) use. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 5, 241-251. Luarn, P. (1993). The relationship between computer-mediated communication systems and social support. ? 0103-H-83-EB-6002 Mickelson, K. D. (1997). Seeking social support: Parents in electronic support groups. In S. Kiesler (Ed.). Culture of the Internet. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Miller, K., & Ray, E. B. (1994). Beyond the ties that bind: Exploring the “meaning” of supportive messages and relationships. In B. R. Burleson, T. L. Albrecht, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.). Communication of social support: Messages, interactions, relationships, and community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ridings, C. M. (2000). Determinants of trust and use in virtual communities. Dissertation Abstracts International, DAI-A 61/03, p. 1074. Riva, G. (2002). The sociocognitive psychology of computer-mediated communication: The present and future of technology-based interactions. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 581-198.

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