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英语句子成分的划分及练习


句子成分(Members of a Sentence)

什么叫句子成分呢?句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中,词与词之间有 一定的组合关系,按照不同的关系,可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分 由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定 语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、 表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语(attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语 (complement)。
英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。 掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。
英语五种基本句型列式如下: 一: S V (主+谓) 二: S V P (主+系+表) 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

基本句型 一:S V (主+谓)

主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如 boy),主格代词(如 you),动词不

定式,动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家!

谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。

不及物动词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如:We come.

此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这

类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等。

S │ V (不及物动词)

1. The sun │was shining. 太阳在照耀着。

2. The moon │rose.

月亮升起了。

3. The universe │remains. 宇宙长存。

4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。

5. Who │cares?

管它呢?

6. What he said │does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。

7. They │talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。

8. The pen │writes smoothly 这支笔书写流利。

基本句型 二: S V P (主+系+表)

此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意 思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意 思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem 等属一类,表 示情况;get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义, 只起连系主语和表语的作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。感官动词多可用作 联系动词:look well/面色好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好,smell bad/ 难闻
S │V(是系动词)│ P 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。

2. The dinner │smells │good.

午餐的气味很好。

3. He │fell │in love.

他堕入了情网。

4. Everything │looks │different.

一切看来都不同了。

5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮

6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。

7. Our well │has gone │dry.

我们井干枯了。

8. His face │turned │red.

他的脸红了。

There be 结构: There be 表示‘存在有’。这里的 there 没有实际意义,

不可与副词‘there 那里’混淆。

此结构后跟名词,表示‘(存在)有某事物’

试比较:There is a boy there.(那儿有一个男孩。)/前一个 there 无实意,后

一个 there 为副词‘那里’。

基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但 不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。 这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的 是构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’,如:me,him,them 等
S │V(及物动词)│ O 1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案? 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。 4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。 5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。 6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说:"早上好!" 7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。 8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。

基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give 给,pass 递,bring 带,show 显示。 这两个宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般 位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如:Gi
ve me a cup of tea,please. 强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如: Show this house to Mr.Smith. 若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:Bring it t
o me,please. S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。 4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。 5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片 6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。

7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。
基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)
此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不 能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。
宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑 上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生 们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词
I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马 路.
S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。 2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色 3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。 4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。 5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想? 6. We │saw │him │out. 我们送他出去 7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。 8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。
但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成 分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而加以 扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是各种类 型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。我们称之为:定语、状 语
一、 定语:定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉
语中常用‘……的’表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修饰 some,any,eve ry,no 构成的复合不定代词时,(如:something、nothing);或不定式、分词短 语作定语、从句作定语时,则定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 形容词作定语: The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy;blue 修饰名 词 pen.)/小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。 Tom is a handsome boy./Tom 是个英俊的男孩。 There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。

数词作定语相当于形容词: Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。 The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。 There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。 代词或名词所有格作定语: His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。 His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。 There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有 Tom 家的两个男孩。 介词短语作定语: The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里的男孩 需要你的一支钢笔。 The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。 There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个 9 岁的,三个 10 岁的男孩。 名词作定语: The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。 It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。 There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有 一支圆珠笔。 副词作定语: The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。 The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 不定式作定语: The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男孩需要 一支钢笔。 The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。 There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。 分词(短语)作定语: The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那个微笑的 男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。 The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是中国产的。 There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。 定语从句: The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yest erday./那个在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的钢笔。 The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。 There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有 五个。
二、状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、因果、条件、
时间、地点、让步、方向、程度、目的等。 状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构之后,强调
时放在句首;修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时间、地点、 目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首,地点状语一般须在时间状语之

前;一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost)的副词状语通常位 于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之后,动词之前。
有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应注意,如:The boy calls the girl i n the classroom.一般理解成‘男孩喊教室里的女孩‘(此时 in the classroom 为 gi rl 的定语),也可以理解为‘男孩在教室里喊女孩’(此时 in the classroom 为地 点状语),最好写作‘In the classroom,the boy calls the girl.\' 副词(短语)作状语: The boy needs a pen very much./男孩非常需要一支钢笔。(程度状语) The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother./男孩 非常需要他母亲买的那支钢笔。(宾语较长则状语前置) The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。(程度状语) The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a pen./The boy,n ow,needs a pen./男孩现在需要一支钢笔。(时间状语) 介词短语作状语:In the classroom,the boy needs a pen./在教室里,男孩需要一支 钢笔。(地点状语) Before his mother,Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个 男孩子.(条件状语) On Sundays,there is no student in the classroom./星期天,教室里 没有学生.(时间状语) 分词(短语)作状语: He sits there,asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。(表示伴随状 态) Having to finish his homework,the boy needs a pen./因为不得不 完成作业,男孩需要一支笔。(原因状语) Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./(因为)受了惊吓,他无声地坐 在那儿。(原因状语) 不定式作状语: The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一支笔写家庭 作业。(目的状语) To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very interested i n business./为实现梦想,汤姆变得对商业很有兴趣. 名词作状语: Come this way!/走这条路!(方向状语) 状语从句: 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句 、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句
三、同位语:同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的
成分,近乎于后置定语。如: We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语,都是指 同一批‘学生’) We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语,都指同样的‘我们’)

四、独立成分:有时句子中会有一些与句子没有语法联系的成分,称为句子
独立成分(注意:区别于分词独立结构)。 感叹词:oh,hello,aha,ah,等。 肯定词 yes 否定词 no 称呼语:称呼人的用语。 插入语:一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。 如: The story,I think,has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结束. 情态词,表示说话人的语气(多作为修饰全句的状语):perhaps 也许,maybe 大概, acturely 实际上,certainly 当然,等。
五、分词独立结构:分词作状语时其逻辑主语与句子的主语一致! 否则应有
自己的逻辑主语,构成分词独立结构。 例: 错句:Studying hard,your score will go up. 正确:(1) Studying hard,you can make your score go up.
或 (2)If you study hard,your score will go up. 解析:错句中分词 studying 没有自带逻辑主语,则其逻辑主语就是句子的主语, 既 your score . 显然做 study 的应是人,不应是 your score(分数). 正确句(1)更正 了句子的主语,使其与分词逻辑主语一致( 同为 you );正确句(2)则使用条件分句带 出 study 的主语,(不过已经不是分词结构了). 分词独立结构常省略 being,having be en.不过‘There being...’的场合不能省略. 如: Game (being) over,he went home. He stands there,book (being) in hand. 独立结构还可用 with、without 引导,作状语 或定语。这种结构不但可以用分词,还可以用不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词 或名词等。 如: With nothing to do,he fell asleep soon./无事可做,他很快就睡着 了。 The teacher came in,with glasses on his nose./老师进来了,戴着 一付眼镜。(注意,此句 on his nose 不可省略!)
句子成分练习题( 一 )
(一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词(4 分, 4 分钟)
① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom.
② There is an old man coming here.
③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.
④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词(10 分, 10 分钟) ① I don't like the picture on the wall.

A. don't B. like

C. picture D. wall

② The days get longer and longer when summer comes.

A. get

B. longer

C. days D. summer

③ Do you usually go to school by bus?

A. Do B. usually

C.go D. bus

④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon.

A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast?

A.Did B. twins

C. have D. breakfast

⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday.

A. Tom B. didn't

C. do D. his homework

⑦ What I want to tell you is this.

A. want B. to tell

C. you D. is

⑧ We had better send for a doctor.

A. We B. had

C. send D. doctor

⑨ He is interested in music.

A. is B. interested C. in D. music ⑩ Whom did you give my book to?

A. give B.did

C. whom D. book

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语(10 分,10 分钟)

① My brother hasn't done his homework.

② People all over the world speak English.

③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

④ How many new words did you learn last class?

⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?⑥ T

he old man sitting at the gate said he was ill. ⑦ They made him monitor of the class. ⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left.

⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school. ⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is.
(四) 挑出下列句中的表语(5 分, 5 分钟) ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ③ The leaves have turned yellow. ④ Soon They all became interested in the subject. ⑤ She was the first to learn about it.
(五) 挑出下列句中的定语(6 分,6 分钟) ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!
(六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语(6 分, 6 分钟) ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. ④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
(七) 挑出下列句中的状语(8 分, 8 分钟) ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it.

⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.

(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语(5 分, 5 分钟)

① Please tell us a story.

② My father bought a new bike for me last week.

③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term.

④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom.

⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

答案

(一)① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do

(二)① B② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C ⑥ C ⑦ D ⑧ C⑨ A

⑩A

(三)①homework. ②English. ③attention

④ words ⑤to go swim

ming ⑥ he was ill. ⑦ him monitor ⑧bridge museum⑨ it

school. ⑩ who"Father Christmas"really is.

(四)①tired. ②worried

③yellow.

④interested

⑤the first

(五)① family ②given③third ④ some ⑤ downstairs ⑥ of the ot

her shoe!

(六)①to read newspapers and books

②to take the boy

③ difficul

t

④ Lily

⑤ get on the bus

⑥ playing football

(七)① on her face. ②Every night

③ when he was eleve

n.

④ too fast.

⑤ With the medicine box under her arm

⑥ becaus

e she loves books.

⑦ if you’ve lost it

⑧ to see the other machin

e.

(八)① us, 间接宾语

a story, 直接宾语

② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语

④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语

句子成分练习题( 二 )

指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分:

1.Whether we’ll go depend on the weather . 2. People’s standards of living are going up steadily . 3. That was how they were defeated. 4.The nursery takes good care of our children . 5.I’ll return the book to you tomorrow . 6.We are sure that we shall succeed . 7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his other . 8.There are many film that I’d like to see. 9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking ? 10.I have a lot of work to do . 11. Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it . 12. I said it in fun . 13. We can send a car over to fetch you . 14. She had to work standing up . 15. Seeing this ,some comrades became very worried . 16. Much interested , he agreed to give it a try . 17. The bus arrived ten minutes late . 18. We should serve the people heart and soul. 19. Spring coming on , the tree turned green . 20. Some farmers saw something strange in the sky . 21. We think it necessary that everyone should attend the meeting . 22. It’s strange that she doesn’t come today .

23. It was in the library that I come today . 24. He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working . 25. We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.
句子成分练习题( 三 ) A 1、 ___ six years since I began to study English. A. It is B. I have been C. There are D. I t was 2 、___ in the room at that time. A. Nobody was B. Someone were C. Who is D. H e are 3 、IT'S very noisy outside. ___ is going on? A. Who B. What C. Which D. Where 4、 ___ in English in class every day is important. A. Speak B. Talking C. Saying D. To tell 5 、There must be____ near the factory. A. a book store B. book store C. books stor e D. books stores 6 、Although it's raining hard, ___ are still working in the fields. A. but they B. and they C. they D. since they
B

1、 The doctor as well as the nurses ___ great concern for the patients.

A. show B. shows C. have shown D. are showin

g

2、 Your son must be a clever boy, ___ he?

A. is B. isn't C. must D. mustn't

3、 The computer center, ___ last year, is very popular among studen

ts in this school.

A. open B. opening

C. opened D. being opene

d

4 、I ___ go to the shop today, for there is a lot of food at home.

A. mustn't B. had to C. can't D. needn't

5 、Don't ___ excited.

A. get B. is C. seem D. look

6 This room ___ every morning.

A. is cleaning B. is cleaned C. cleans D. clea

ning

C

1、 Glad to meet you! ___ is your full name?

A. What B. Where C. How D. Who

2、 He is ___ to lift the heavy box.

A. too weak B. weak tooC. enough weak D. wea

k enough

3、 The days are ___ warmer and warmer in spring.

A. getting B. looking C. seeming D. going

4 、His job is____English.

A. teach B. to teach C. taught D. teaches

5 、Two balls are___.

A. under the desk B. in the wall C. to her

e D. at desks

D

1 、We should get ready___ others.

A. helping B. to help C. help D. help with

2、 ___interesting work we are doing?

A. What a B. How C. What D. What an

3、 I want___ a teacher when I grow up (-fx;fc).

A. to be B. to C. be D. being

4、 -Would you like to go on a picnic with me today?

-I don't think so. To be honest, I really don'

t feel like___on a

picnic.

A. going B. to go C. go D. went

5 Do you know___?

A. where does he live

B. where he lives

C. where he live D. if where he lives

6 Let ____ do it again. A. I B. me C. he D. she
7 I don't know___. A. how to do B. what to do C. where to d o D. when to do
E
1、 I saw him ___ basketball with Jack an hour ago. A. plays B. to play C. played D. play o
2、 Sorry, we've kept you___ for a long time. A. waited B. sing C. stand D. waiting
3 、The teacher told us ____ late again. A. aren't be B. don't be C. not to be D. no t be
4 、We find the room very___. A. warm B. warmly C. terribly D. hardly
F
1 、I found ___ difficult to work together with him. A. it B. its C. that D. those
2 、We all know ___ our duty to clean our classroom after school eve ry day. A. that B. this C. which D. it

3、 He found ___ very interesting to play with the little dog. A. what B. it C. / D. that
G
( ) 1 Tom said he ___ a good dream yesterday eve ning. A. dream B. dreamed C. have D. has
( ) 2 Children ___ a happy life in China. A. lead B. living C. has D. leading
H
( ) 1 America, Japan and Canada are___countries. A. developing B. developed C. less develope d D. develop
( ) 2 -___ skirt is that on the chair? -Let me see. Oh, no, it's not mine. A. Whose B. What C. Who's D. Which
( ) 3 Do you have anything ___? A. saying B. to^ay C. said D. say
( ) 4 Look, there is an___tree by the wall. A. apple B. apple's C. apples' D. apples
( ) 5 Where is____seat? A. yours B. your C. you D. yourselves
I

( ) 1 The box is ___ heavy for her ___ carry. A. very; to B. too; not to C. too; to D. very too; to
2 -___ did you buy the new bag? -Last Monday. A. Where B. How C. When D. Who
3 You can see these signs in a hospital. ___ ca n you see them? A. Where else B. Where place else C. Where else place D. Else where
4 They went out ___ their old friends. A. visit B. visiting C. to visit D. visited
5 There is a wide river____ our village. A. outside B. over C. from D. below
J
1 The young man, ___ works in the office. A. me brother B. my brother C. my brother s D. me
2 Our English teacher, ___ often helps us with stu dy. A. Mrs Wang B. Mrs5 WangC. MrsWang's . D. o f him

3 ___, some railway workers are busy repairing th
e train.
A. Them B. He C. They D. Theirs
A . 1-6 A A B B A C B. 1-6 B B C D A B C. 15AAABA D. 1-7 B C A A B B B E. 1-4 D D C A F. 13 A D B G. 1-2 B A H. 1-5 B A B A B I .1-5 C C A C A J. 1-3 B A C


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