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大学英语语法(全)


College English Grammar

语法简介
? ? ? ? ? ? 语法的涵义、特点及分类 语法的三个层面:形式、意义、用法 掌握语法的重要性及语法教学的目标 英语语法的构成和特点 大学英语语法教学的重难点 如何更有效地掌握大学英语语法

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语法是语言的规则 语法是词的构成、变化和用词造句的规则 语法包括词法和句法 语法是语言学的一个分支,研究按确定用法来 运用的词类、词的屈折变化或表示相互关系 的其他手段以及词在句中的功能和关系
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语法具有高度的抽象性 语法具有强大的递归性 语法具有严密的系统性 语法具有相对的稳固性 语法还具有民族性

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? 从历时角度,可分为传统语法和现代语法 (以结构主义语言学出现为界) ? 从描写目的,可分为理论语法和教学语法 (英语语法属教学语法的范畴)

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语法的三个层面:形式、意义、用法
? 形式:某个语法结构怎样构成的。比如 “现在完成进行时”的结构形式是have been doing。这是使用语法规则的起点, 即首先要做到能够准确地构造某个语法结 构,这是语法结构的准确性问题。

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? 意义:某个语法结构表达的意义。比如“现在完成 进行时”可以表示“一个活动从过去一直延续到现 在说话时刻”这样的含义,这就是现在完成时态这 一结构所具备的语法意义。由此可以看出,特定意 义一般是对应于特定的结构形式的,或者说,特定 的结构形式能够表达特定的意义(Particular forms will express their particular meanings)。对于一个句子,它的含义不仅仅是来 自于句中所使用的词汇的含义,而是还有来自于其 中特定语法结构所含有的语法意义。

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? 用法:关于何时/为什么使用某一语法结构 的问题。这与在实际交流中的语境有关系, 即什么样的语境中,采用何种语法结构来 表达特定的意义才合适,这是有关语法结 构的合适型问题。意义和用法是密切相关 的,有时难以严格界定。

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? 某一特定的语法结构的形式、意义和用法这 三者之间是相互联系的,图示如下:
形式(Form) 语法结构怎样构成 (准确性)

意义(Meaning) 语法结构表达什么意义 (表意性)
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用法(Usage) 何时/为什么使用 (合适性)

? 语法形式、意义、用法三者之间的关系: 英语学习者要能够准确地、有意义地、恰当 地去运用英语语言结构。
做到这一点,才能真正灵活使用语法规则,并进 而在思维高度上来使用英语。比如:

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? I have been coming to Beijing for fourteen years. ? 翻译一:我来北京有14年了。 ? 翻译二:在过去这14年中,我常常来北京。

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? 翻译二正确。
? Have been doing 在英文中表示的是一个重复的动 作,具体来说:用短暂动词(如come)的完成进 行时(如have been coming)来表示到目前为止 的一段时间内重复发生的动作。

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? 因此,知道语法结构的正确构造形式只是 第一步,还要清楚其表达的语法意义。但 知其二并不能保证能够正确使用,还要知 道其用法。其用法与语言环境密切相关。

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? 句子与语境
? 在真实的语言交际过程中,任何一个句子都不能 够孤立存在,都有一个赖以生存的环境。甚至有 时候,语境决定了一个句子真正要表达的意思。 ? 比如下面这个电影对白发生在一位父亲与自己女 儿的男朋友之间:

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? Father: Do you drink? Young Man: No,thanks,I’m cool. Father: I’m asking If you drink. Do you think I’d offer alcohol to teenage drivers taking my daughter out?

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? 这位父亲问他女儿的男朋友(其正准备开车带他 女儿出门):Do you drink?他真正的意思是问这 个年轻男子是否有饮酒的习惯,即在询问情况, 而不是问他现在想不想喝酒,即不是在提议。

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? 因此,从交际的角度去看待语法,在具体语境中考 查语法规则的使用,通过语篇、语境驾驭语法来达 到十分具体的交际目的。我们不仅知道“应该”怎 么说(what learners should say),更应该去了解为 什么英语本族语者要“这样”说(what native speakers of English actually do say and why)。

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? “要掌握一门语言,首先要掌握其语法。只 有掌握了语法,最终才能掌握语言,才能得 心应手地运用之。” ? The first and most important step in gaining over the language is gaining control over its grammar. It is the knowledge of grammar that yields access to the rich possibilities of the language and the means to use it.
----《不列颠英语用法大全》
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? “语言的科学和艺术” -----英国著名语言学H.Sweet

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? 两个目标、三个阶段: 高级阶段 能 过渡阶段 初级阶段 练↑ 知 由此看出学习语法知识是第一步,通过不 断的练习才能实现向语言能力的转换, 最终达到言语交际的目的。
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? 外语语法学习示意图: 语法应用能力 高级阶段 过渡阶段 ↗ ↖ 语法知识 语言直觉 初级阶段 ↖ ↗ 学习方式
学得 习得





语言学习
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? 语法知识与语言技能
? 语法知识如何转化为语言技能,要做到下面两点: ? 首先,要“多思考”(think much),要认真领悟 书中所讲到的语法规则。认真思考语法规则背后 的合乎情理的思维规律,把“课本上的语法”(a textbook grammar)变为“头脑中的语法”(a mental grammar)——即逐渐培养自己运用英语 思维的能力。

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? 其次,要“多练习”(practice much),这里的 练习,不仅是指为了应付考试而做的大量的阅读 练习和单项选择题练习,而是包括听、说、读、 写、译全方位的练习,尤其是口语和写作这种语 言产出能力的练习。

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? 英语语法包括词法和句法 ? 词法:名词(noun)、动词(verb)、形容词 (adjective)、冠词(article)、数词(numeral)、 介词(preposition)、代词(pronoun)、连词 (conjunction)、副词(adverb)等词类的用法 ? 句法:一般规则的用法和特殊规则的用法

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

1、名词(n.): 表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念的名称。如:boy, morning, bag, ball, class, orange. 2、代词(pron.): 主要用来代替名词。如:who, she, you, it . 3、形容词(adj..):表示人或事物的性质或特征。如:good, right, white, orange . 4、数词(num.): 表示数目或事物的顺序。如:one, two, three, first, second, third, fourth. 5、动词(v.): 表示动作或状态。如:am, is,are,have,see . 6、副词(adv.): 修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,说明时间、地点、程度等。如: now, very, here, often, quietly, slowly. 7、冠词(art..):用在名词前,帮助说明名词。如:a, an, the. 8、介词(prep.): 表示它后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。如in, on, from, above, behind. 9、连词(conj.): 用来连接词、短语或句子。如and, but, before . 10、感叹词(interj..)表示喜、怒、哀、乐等感情。如:oh, well, hi, hello.

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?
英 语 语 法 构 成 示 意 图

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英语句子五个层次的变化
? ? ? ? ? 简单的简单句 复杂的简单句 非简单句 复杂结构充当句子成分 从句套从句的结构

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动态中把握英语语法
? 把握英语句子由易到难的五个层次的变化
? 学会从动态发展的角度去理解和思考语法 在句子中的体现

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? 简单的简单句

? 六个最基本句型,以及其中包含的六种句子成 分(主谓宾系表补)。 ? ①SV(主谓) ? ②SVO(主谓宾) ? ③SVP(主系表) ? ④SVOOC(主谓宾宾补) ? ⑤SVIODO(主谓双宾语) ? ⑥There be + O (There be)
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英语词类与句子成分关系图:
句子成分 类或短语 名词 代词 形容词 数词 时态语态形式 动词不定式 动 词 动名词 动词现在分词 动词过去分词 副词 介词短语 词 主语* 谓语 宾语* 表语* 定语* 状语* 宾语 语 √ × √√ √ × √√√ × √√√ √√ √ √ 补足 √√√ √√√ × √ × √√ √√ × × × × × × × × √√√ × × × × × × √√√ √√√ × √ × √√ √√√ × × × × √√ √√ √√√ √ × √ √ √ √ √ √√ √ √√ √√√ √√√ × √ √ √ √ √ √ × × × × × √√ × √√ √√ √√√ √√

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? 复杂的简单句
? 在六大句型基础上加三大修饰成分(定语、状语、同 位语)后句子变得更加复杂了,但仍属于简单句(即句 号前只有一个主谓结构)。 ? 如:

I left the beautiful city Beijing yesterday. 主谓 定 宾 同位 状

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? 非简单句
? 当一个句号前出现两个、甚至更多个主谓结构时,简 单句就变成了并列句或复合句。

? ①并列句(并列连词连接) ? ②复合句(从句引导词引导)

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? 复杂结构充当句子成分
? 简单句子中的成分一般由简单的词或词组充当,而随 着句子变长变难,句中的一个成分可能就会由长而且 复杂的结构充当,如从句、非谓语动词短语、动词短 语、形容词短语、介词短语等等。 ? 如: Feeling upset and not wanting to try, I left the city which I loved. (分词短语作状语、从句作定语)

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? 从句套从句的结构
? 一个复杂的句子中,可以有两个以上的从句,这些从 句相互之间可以是平行关系,也可以是从属关系(即 从句套从句),这种情况理解难度较大。

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? 如: The American economic system is organized around a basically private-enterprise, marketoriented economy in which① consumers largely determine what② shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that③they want most. (1994年考研 英语passage 1)

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? 下面通过英汉语法的对比来看英语语法的特 点

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英汉语法对比
? 一、 汉语中有很多无主语句子或省略主语的 句子,在用英语表达时,须补出主语(祈使 句的情形例外)。如:

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? 1、暑假过得很开心 The summer vacation is happy. We/They had a good time in the summer vacation. (T)
(上面的这个汉语句子实际上没有主语,“暑假” 在句中是状语。译成英语时须加主语 We/They/He/I 等。)
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? 2、天气糟透了。整天刮大风下大雨的。 The weather was so bad. It blew hard and rained heavily all the day. (翻译时必须补出主语It。)

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? 3、考试没过别泄气。
Don’t lose heart if you don’t pass the exam. (翻译时在从句中要补充出主语you.)

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? 二、汉语中有很多无生物名词作主语,但在 英语中要改用生物即人作主语。如: ? 1、你的英语真棒。 Your English is excellent. You are excellent in English. (T)

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? 2、史密斯先生双目失明。 Mr Smith’s eyes are blind. Mr Smith is blind in both eyes. (T)

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? 三、汉语中的一些句子以生物即人作主语, 但受表语形容词的制约,在英语中不可以人 为主语。如:

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? 1、你方便的话,请在六点钟来。 Please come at six if it is convenient to you. (T) Please come at six if you are convenient.

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? 2、你很难说服他不去逛街。 You are difficult to persuade him out of going shopping. It is difficult for you to persuade him out of going shopping. (T) ? 但是我们可以说:English is difficult to learn for some people.

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? 四、汉语中有大量的无谓语动词句子,但英 语是一种以动词为中心的语言,每个句子几 乎都少不了谓语动词(省略句除外)。如:

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? 1、这本书值得一读。 The book is worth reading. (T) The book worth reading.

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? 2、我父母每天都很忙。 My parents are very busy every day. (T) My parents very busy every day.

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? 五、汉语中及物动词与不及物动词、状态动 词与动作动词的差别不大,界限不明,但在 英语 中却有严格区别和固定的用法模式。如:

? 1、他与她结婚了。
He married with her. (with 是多余的)

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? 2、凡是党和人民所要求的,我一定做到。 I’ll do what the Party and the people require me. ( 译句中require 后须加 of。)

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? 3、我开始学英语到现在已有十年了。 I have begun to learn English for ten years. It has been ten years since I began to learn English. (T)

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? 4、这本杂志我可以借多久? How long can I keep this magazine? (T) ? How long can I borrow this magazine?
? (borrow 是一个表示瞬间短暂行为的动作动词, 当然不能与how long 连用。)

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? 5、父亲直到半夜才睡觉。 Father went to bed until midnight. Father didn’t go to bed until midnight. Or: Father stayed up until midnight. (T)

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? 六、在汉语中,词形没有变化;在英语中却 有丰富的词形变化。如:

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? 医生建议他每天喝两杯牛奶。 The doctor suggests that he (should) drink two glasses of milk every day. (T) The doctor suggest that he drinks two glass of milk every day.

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? 英语中名、形、副、动、数词等均有词形变 化,其中以动词的形式变化最多,看下例:

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? 1、西瓜切成了八等份。 The watermelon divides into eight equal shares. The watermelon is divided into eight equal shares. (T)

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? 2、从这一角度看,情况似乎没那么令人失望。 Looked at in this way, the situation doesn’t seem so disappointing. (T) ? Looking at in this way, the situation doesn’t seem so disappointing.

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? 强化重点、突出难点:情态动词、虚拟语 气、从句、强调、倒装、否定、省略、主 谓一致、比较等是大学英语语法的重难点 ? 从词法、句法层面上升到语篇层面:大学 英语语法教学则更偏重句法的教学。句法 教学体现在理解语篇当中的长难句,而理解 长难句最多运用到的语法知识就是从句、 平行比较结构和非谓语动词短语三大语法 规则
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? 如:The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element (分词短语作介 宾)and prevented the decline in efficiency (and 连接平行结构)that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms (that引导定语从句)in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.(1996年考研英语阅读理 解passage 3)
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? 英语语法学得好不好,主要不是看你读了 多少语法书,记了多少条语法规则,而是 要看你在实践中能否正确掌握所学的这些 语法规则——能听懂,说得好,写得好,理 解得好,译得准确。
? 要掌握好一个语法项目,就得靠多听、多 说、多写、多读、多译,也就是做反复的、 大量的、多样化的练习。
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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

目录
(一)时态 (二)语气(虚拟语气) (三)形容词、副词及比较级、最高级 (四)代词及其指代一致 (五)主谓一致 (六)倒装结构 (七)省略问题 (八)否定句及其惯常用法 (九)独立主格结构 (十)名词性从句 (十一)冠词 (十二)介词 (十三)名词所属格,固定搭配等

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? Please sit down! ? I am a teacher./I am not a teacher./Are you a teacher? ? If I were you, I would do better.

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? ? ? ?

英语中有三种语气: 祈使语气(Imperative mood) 直陈语气(Indicative mood) 虚拟语气(Subjunctive mood)

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If he had driven (drive) more carefully, he would not have had (have) the car accident yesterday.
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? 虚拟语气是一种表示假设、意愿、建议、请 求、命令、猜测、可能或主观打算的一种语 气。

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? 近两年虚拟语气在英语四六级中的考查 情况:体现在翻译题型中

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? 【CET-4:2006.6】

The professor required that

research report (s) .

we hand in our

(我们交研究报告)。 ? 【CET-6:2007.6】 It is absolutely unfair that these children

(should) be deprived of the right to receive education . (被剥夺了受教育的权利).
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? It’s time something was done/some measures were taken (采取措施) about the traffic problem downtown.

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? 【CET-4:2006.12】 The victim would have survived (本来会有机会活下来)if he had been taken to hospital in time. ? 【CET-6:2007.12】 But for mobile phone, our communication

would not have been so efficient and c o n v e n i e n t .

(我们的通讯就不可能如此迅速和方便)
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? 【CET-6:2007 】 If you had followed my advice/

suggestion, you would not have been in trouble.
(听从了我的忠告, 你就不会陷入麻烦).

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Summary
? ? ? ? 虚拟语气的考点归纳如下: (should)+动词原形的情形 wish, if only, it is time…的用法 if或but for等引导的条件句

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1.1 虚拟语气的类别
? 从虚拟语气的形式和内容两方面着眼,可 将其分为三大类: ? be型虚拟语气 ? Were型虚拟语气 ? 条件虚拟语气

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1.2 be型虚拟语气
? Be型虚拟语气指在任何情况下,不分时态、 人称,句子谓语动词统统使用原形动词的 虚拟形式,be型虚拟语气主要有两种用途

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? 1)用于含有命令、建议、要求等意义的结构 中
? 含有上述意义的动词后的宾语从句 ? 含有上述意义的名词后的同位语从句或表语从句 ? 含有上述意义的某些It is +过去分词+that 或it is +形 容词+that 的结构中 在英国英语中,这一类的虚拟 语气也可以用should+原形动词的形式

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? The teacher insisted that we be in his office at 5 o’clock. ? 老师坚持让我们五点钟到他的办公室去。 ? The general ordered that his troops retreat from the frontline. ? 将军命令部队从前线撤退。

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? All I request of you is that you be punctual. ? 我只要你准时到。 ? It is essential that the new technique be introduced. ? 引进新工艺很重要。 ? It is imperative that you present yourself at the meeting. ? 你务必亲自出席会议。
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? Instructions are issued that the war prisoners be released. ? 释放所有战犯的命令已经下达。 ? It is the committee’s decision that the meeting be put off until next Friday. ? 委员会决定会议延至下星期五举行。

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? 常与be型虚拟语气连用的 ? 动词主要有: advise,agree,decide,demand,insist,move,order,prefer, propose, request,require,suggest等 ? 名词主要有: decision,advice.demand,instruction,order,insistence, proposal, requirement,resolution,suggestion等 ? 形容词主要有: advisable,desirable,appropriate,essential,fitting, important,imperative,impossible,necessary,obligatory, proper,vital,urgent等
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? 用于表示祝愿、诅咒、假定、让步、担忧等 含义的结构和一些固定用法中。
? 这些虚拟语气多由某些特定的连接词引导, 它们多为古英语虚拟语气的残余,现仅限于 正式场合使用,一般可为直陈语气所取代。

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? 如: ? If that be the case, we have to give up our original plan. 倘若情况果真如此,我们将不得不放弃原定 计划。 ? Whatever be your reason, you have no right to be rude to your elders. 无论你有什么理由,你都无权对长辈们粗鲁 无礼。
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? They evacuated the building lest the wall collapse. ? 他们撤出了大楼,以防墙壁倒塌。 ? Though he slay me, will I trust in him? ? 即使他要杀我,我也要信赖他吗? ? Long live our motherland! ? 祖国万岁!
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? God save his soul. ? 上帝保佑他的灵魂得到安息。 ? Far be it from me to accept his advice blindly. 我决不会盲目接受他的意见。 ? Home is home, be it ever so homely. ? 家纵简陋,总归是家。 ? We can always lend you a helping hand if need be. ? 倘有必要,我们随时可以援一引手。
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1.3 were型虚拟语气
? Were 型虚拟语气主要指be动词在某些表示 与事实相反的语境里使用固定的were形式
? 其他动词在类似的语境里使用过去时或过 去完成体形式的虚拟语气。

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? Were型虚拟语气主要用于表示与事实相反的愿望、 假设、印象、看法等意义的结构中 ? Wish一类动词后的宾语从句 ? If only, as if, would rather/sooner, it is time 等短语 后边的句子,如与现在情况相反,虚拟语气用动 词的过去时(be动词用were), 与过去情况相反,则用过去完成体形式

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? We earnestly wish he were here with us sharing our happiness.
? 我真希望他此刻正与我们在一起分享我们 的快乐。 ? I do wish the frightful calamity had not befallen us. ? 我真希望那场可怕的灾难没有降临到我们 头上。
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? If only his advice had been acted upon. ? 当时要是采纳了他的意见该有多好。 ? How dare you come in as if you owned the place? ? 你怎么敢象是这地方的主人似的随意进来? ? I would rather we had dinner now. ? 我倒愿意现在就吃饭。

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? ? ? ?

I would sooner he stayed at home. 我倒宁愿他现在呆在家里。 It is high time you turned over a new leaf. 现在该是你改过自新重新做人的时候了。

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1.4 条件虚拟语气
? 从总体上说,条件虚拟语气基本上可理解 为是在直陈语气的基础上将时间点朝过去 的方向推移了一步。 ? 条件虚拟语气中与各时间情况相反的虚拟 动词形式如下表:

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虚拟时间基准

条件从句

结果主句

与过去事实相反 had+过去分词

Would+完成体

于现在事实相反 过去时(be动词 Would+原形动词 用were) 与将来事实相反 Should+原形动词 Should(第一人称) Would(二三人 称)+原形动词
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? 1. 4.1与各时间基准相反条件虚拟语气例示

? 注意虚拟句中隐含的真实情况和作者、说话 人的情感、意愿意义,如: ? If his suggestions had been acted upon, circumstances would have been entirely different.
? 倘若早将他的建议付诸实施,情况早就完全 不同了。

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? If it hadn’t rained so heavily I would surely have come to your meeting on Friday afternoon. ? 倘若不是天下大雨,我肯定会来出席你们星 期五下午召开的会议。 ? If he knew you are here, he would certainly come to see you . ? 如果他知道你在这里,他肯定会来看你。
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? If she dyed her hair a little darker, she would look much younger. ? 如果她把头发染一点,她看起来会显得年轻 很多。 ? If the sun should rise in the west, I would not change my mind. ? 就是太阳从西边出来,我也不会改变主意。

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? 1. 4.2省略if的条件虚拟语气
? 条件虚拟语气的条件从句中如有助动词、动 词be或动词have时,可以将if省略,将以上这 些词与主语位置倒置,这些用法往往见于比 较正式的语体中,如:

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? Were it not for the heavy fog, the plane would have taken off on schedule. ? 要不是因为浓雾弥漫,飞机就会按预定时间 起飞。 ? Were he allowed to exercise a choice, which would he choose of the three? ? 倘若让他们使选择权,三者之中他将挑选哪 一个?

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? Should there be a misfortune, how could its loss be lightened? ? 如果发生不幸,怎样才能减轻损失? ? Had I known of your difficulties I would have helped you . ? 要是我当时知道你的窘境,我就会帮你了。

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? 1. 4.3 错综条件虚拟语气

? 有时条件从句对应的时间基准与结果主句对 应的时间基准可能会出现错位,如从句表示 与过去事实相反的意义,主句表示与现在情 况相反等,这时应该针对情况对动词形式予 以调整,如:

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? If it had not been for the prolonged drought in May ,we should reap a bumper harvest this year. ? 要不是五月那场持续的干旱,我们今年可 能夺得大丰收。(条件从句与过去事实相 反,主句与将来可能情况相反)

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? Had he not turned a deaf ear to my warning, he would not be in such a difficult situation.
? 倘若他对我的告诫不置若罔闻的话,他就 不会陷入目前的困境了。(条件从句与过 去事实相反,主句与现在情况相反)

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? Had he enough courage he would certainly take your challenge.
? 假如他有足够的勇气,他肯定会勇敢地接 受你的挑战。(条件从句与现在事实相反, 主句与将来情况相反)

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? Had you worked a bit harder, you would not have to be so extremely worried about the coming examination now. ? 如果你过去学习用功一点,现在也不必象 这样为即将来临的考试忧心如焚了。(条 件从句与过去事实相反,结果主句与现在 情况相反)

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? 1. 4.4 含蓄条件虚拟语气 ? 有时条件虚拟语气的条件不是由从句表达的, 而是由介词词组或上下文等表达的,这样的 虚拟语气称为含蓄条件虚拟语气,如:

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? We could not have achieved such brilliant achievement in the war without the selfless support from the allied forces. ? 要不是盟军的无私援助,我们不可能取得 如此辉煌的成绩。

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? The plan would have turned out to be quite effective under other circumstances. ? 换个环境,该计划完全可能非常有效。

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? He would have got much higher scores in the final examination, but he was so lazy.
? 他本来在期末考试中得分会高得多的,只 是他太懒惰了。

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? It was snowing heavily or we could have got there on time. ? 那天正值天降大雪,不然我们本来可以按时到达的。 ? With more capital, I would have succeeded. ? 假如有更多的资本,我可能会取得成功。 ? The same thing, happening in a crowded place, would have brought a great disaster. ? 假如相同的事件发生在人群拥挤的地方,一定会引 起一场大灾难。
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? But for the doctor’s skill, he would have died. ? 要不是医生医术高明,他早就死了。 ? Five minutes earlier, and we could have caught the last train. ? 如果早到五分钟,我们就可以赶上一班火车了。 ? To hear him speak English, you’d take him for an American. ? 假如你听他说英语,你会以为他是美国人。

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Exercise One
? 1. If the earth suddenly __ spinning, we would all fly off it.(1990 年6月四级题) A. stopped B. had stopped C. has stopped D. would stop

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? 2. “How should the city be run?” “If I __ a mayor, I would make the streets cleaner and hire more policemen.”(托福题) A. would B. were C. would be D. should

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? 3. If the whole operation __ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost.(1999年6月四级题) A. was not planned B. has not been planned C. had not been planned D. were not planned

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? 4. Jean doesn’t want to work right away because she thinks that if she __ a job she probably wouldn’t be able to see her friends very often. (1996年1月四级题) A. has to get B. were to get C. had got D. could have got

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? 5. If I hadn’t stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you __ now.(1999 年1月四级题) A. wouldn’t be smiling B. couldn’t have smiled C. won’t smile D. didn’t smile

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? 6. I apologize if I __ you, but I assure you it was unintentional.(1998年考研题) A. offend B. had offended C. should have offended D. might have offended

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? 7. It is of the utmost importance that you __ here on time.(1995年6月六级题) A. be B. shall be C. are to be D. must be

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? 8. It is recommended that the project __ until all the preparations have been made.(1995年6月四级题) A. is not started B. will not be started C. not be started D. is not to be started

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? 9. Who would you rather his daughter __ in the same office.(2002年6月四级题) A. going B. to go C. have gone D. went

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? 10. Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions,__ they Christina, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.(2001考研题) A. be B. being C. were D. are

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Translation
? 1.要是我哥哥在这儿,一切都没有问题了。 If my brother were here, everything would be all right. ? 2.昨晚如果有时间,我就回来看你的。 If I had had time last night,I would have come to see you.

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? 3.You would be much better now if you had taken my advice. 假如你接受了我的意见,你现在就会好得多。 ? 4. As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. 作为陆海空三军的总司令,我已下令采取一切防御 措施。

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Listening Practice
? Enjoy the following english songs and practice the subjunctive mood.

? Because I love you ? Shoulda woulda coulda

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Oral Practice
? Suppose tomorrow was Teacher’s Day. You wanted very much to celebrate it for your middle school teacher,but you would be very busy then. What would you do then? ? Talk over your planning with your partners. Whenever you have difficulties with grammar, do consult with your partners.

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Writing Practice
? First, write a short Passage with the title “ If I were Bill Gates” in15 minutes. ? Then, exchange your work with your partner and point out the grammatical errors in the writing for each other. ? Finally, corret the errors in your own writing . Pay attention to the usage of the subjunctive mood in it.

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? Olympics: He believes rowers could have done better. "A gold and two bronze is an amazing achievement but I think all of us would agree that if everything went our way we could have gone better," he said.
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情态动词的特征 情态动词(modal verb)表示说话人的语气或 情态。情态动词本身虽有词义,但不完全, 不能单独作谓语动词,只能和不带to的动词 不定式连用,一起构成谓语动词。情态动词 没有人称和数的变化。

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2.1 情态动词的现在完成式的用法
情态动词现在完成式主要有两个功能: 表已经发生的情况和表示虚拟语气。

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? 在这两个方面must/mustn’t; can/can’t; need/needn’t;may/mayn’t;might/mightn ’t; should/shouldn’t;ought to等情态动 词+完成式表示的意思是有一定区别的

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? 2.1.1表示已经发生的情况。 1)must have+过去分词,表示对已发生情 况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定……”。

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? 如:
My pain____ apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically:“ Are you feeling all right?” [A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be
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? 2)can’t / couldn’t have+过去分词, 表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为 “(昨天)一定没……”。

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? 如:
Mary ___ my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now. [A] couldn’t have received [B] ought to have received [C] has received [D] shouldn’t have received

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? 3)may / might have +过去分词,表示对已发 生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或 事实上根本没发生,译为“也许……”。

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? 如:
? At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.

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? 2.1.2表示虚拟语气 1) needn’t have + 过去分词,表示做了不 必做的事,相当于”didn’t need to do”, 译为“其实没必要……”。

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? 如:

You needn’t have come over yourself. As it turned out to be a small house party, we __ so formally. [A] needn’t dress up [B] did not need have dressed up [C] did not need dress up [D] needn’t have dressed up

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? 2)should have +过去分词,表示应该做某 事但实际上未做,译为“本应该……”; should not + have过去分词表示本不应该 做某事但实际上做了,译为“本不应 该……”。

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? 如:
? I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.
? 我本来应该事先认真地把每件事情规划的很 好,但实际上作者还是没有规划好,以至工 作没有完成。

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? 3) ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按理 该发生了,但实际上未发生,译“该……”, 与should 的完成式含义类似。

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? 如:
? The porter ought to have called the firebrigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke .

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? 4) could have +过去分词,表示过去本来可 以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。 这点与ought/should/ have +过去分词用法相 似。

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? 如:
? What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

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? 5) may/ might have +过去分词,表示过去可 以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许 会……”

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? 如:
? It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.

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? 2.2 情态动词+不定式进行式
情态动词+ be + v-ing,表推测或评论 某动作现在是否正在进行

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如: They shouldn’t be watching TV now.
They should be doing their homework. 他们不该在家看电视。 他们应该在做家庭作业才对。

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? 2.3 情态动词+不定式完成进行时
情态动词+have been + v-ing ,表推测 或评论过去某动作是否正在进行或一直 在进行。

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如:They shouldn’t have been chatting then.
They must have been working then. 那时他们不该在闲谈。 他们一定一直在工作

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? 2.4 几个情态动词常考的句型: 2.4.1 may/might (just) as well “不妨,最 好”,与had better相近; ? Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train. 既然航班已经取消了,你不妨乘火车吧。相 当于you had better go by train。

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? 2.4.2 cannot / can’t…too …“越……越好, 怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体 cannot…over…. ? 如: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car. 驾车时候,越小心越好。

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? 2.4.3 used not to 或didn’t use to 为used to (do) 的否定式。 ? 2.4.4 should 除了“应该”一层意思外,还要 掌握其“竟然”的意思。 ? 如: ? I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。

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? 2.5 情态动词被动关系的主动表达法
2.5.1 want, require, worth(形容词)后面接 doing也可以表示被动意义。 如: ? Your hair wants cutting . The book is worth reading. The floor requires washing.

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? 2.5.2 need既可以用need to be done 也可以使 用need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的意义 ? The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted. The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired.

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Exercise Two
1. Research findings show that we spend about two hours dreaming every night, no matter what we_ during the day .(1999年1月四级题) A. should have done B. would have done C. may have done D. must have done

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2. Some women __ a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of family.(2000年1月四 级题) A. must make B. should have made C. would make D. could have made

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3.He __ another career but, at the time ,he didn’t have enough money to attend graduate school.(1995年1月六级题) A. might have chosen B. might choose C. had to choose D. must have chosen

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答案
1.C.研究结果表明,我们不论白天可能做什么,每天晚上都 要用大约两个小时做梦。 2.D.有些妇女本来可以挣一份很好的工资,而不是待在家里, 但是为了家庭,她们决定不工作。 3.A.他本来可能选择另一种职业,但是那是他没有足够的钱 上研究生

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Listening Practice
? Listen to the following English song. ? Always on my mind

——Elvis Presley

? 提高对情态动词should have/ could have/ can’t/ 等词的敏感度

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近两年在英语四六级翻译中的考查

? Since my childhood I have found that to me,

nothing is more interesting than reading. (没有什么比读书对我更有吸引力)
(2006. 12)

? The more you explain, the more confused I am .(我愈糊涂)(2006. 6)
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? 强化例句:Nothing could have been more annoying. ? 强化例句:The older I get, the happier I am.

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3.1形容词的修饰与位置
? 一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀 “ ly” 往往是副词,但有的以“ ly ”结尾的词是形 容词而不是副词,这点要注意; ? 形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成 份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做表语和只 能做前置定语,这些形容词在修饰时候有一 定的特殊性。

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? 3.1.1以-ly结尾的是形容词而不是副词
costly 昂贵的 deadly 死一般的 friendly 友好的 kindly 热心肠的 leisurely 悠闲的 brotherly 兄弟般的 earthly 尘世的 lonely 孤独的 lively 活泼的 silly 傻气的 likely 可能的 ugly 长得丑的 monthly 每月的

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? 3.1.2以“a”开头的很多形容词只能做表语 afraid 害怕的 awake 醒着的 alive 活着的 asleep 睡着的 well 健康的 unable 无能的 alike 相象的 alone 单独的,惟一的 ashamed 羞愧的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的 content 满意的

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? 3.1.3只作前置定语的形容词
earthen 泥土做的 golden 金子般的 silken 丝一般的 wooden 木制的 woolen 毛织的 only 惟一的 little 小的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的 former 前任的 mere 仅 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的 live 活的

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? 3.1.4下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词, 注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语:
remain ,keep ,become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look ? 如: ? All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.

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? 3.2形容词与副词的比较级与最高级
? 3.2.1做比较级题目时,学生应把握:
1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对 应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级的结构。

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? 如:

Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often __,or better than an actual performance. [A] as good as [B] as good [C] good [D] good as

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? 在这里as good as 比较连词与better than比较连词 同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个介词。答案为A

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? 2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是 说比较要具有可比性。

? 如: ? The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half ___ . [A] of last year’s [B] those of last year’s [C] of those of last year [D] that of last year’s
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? (前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加的人数 “the number of”故代替它的应该是单数指示代 词“that”,而不能选择B,those是指代 participants,不是同类对比,答案为D。

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? 3)比较级与倍数词关系及其位置
原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为….若 干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起时候等,他 们的位置是,倍数词+as…as…,或倍数词 +more…than…,但again一般放在原级词之后,即 “as+原级+again + as”.如

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? Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year __ than automobile accidents. [A] seven more times [B] seven times more [C] over seven times [D] seven times

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? “Do you regret paying__ as five hundred dollars for the painting ?”“No, I would gladly have paid for it.” [A] twice so much [B] twice as much [C] as much twice [D] so much twice

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? 4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念: inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than.

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? 如: ? Their watch is _ to all the other watches on the market. [A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial

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? Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986年考研题)

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? 5)“比较级+and +比较级”或“more and more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越……”的意 思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become等。 ? 前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是 这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要用than.如:

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? Things are getting worse and worse. ? As I spoke to him he became less and less angry. ? Her health was becoming daily worse . ? The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.

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? 6)比较级前面可以用even, still, yet ,all the (more)等 修饰语用以加强语气,表示“更加”的意思。如:

? Today it is even colder than yesterday . I have yet more exciting news for you .

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? 7) 有关比较级的特殊句型: A): not …so much as 需要注意的:
? 从结构上来看,not…so much as 可以有两种结构:not A so much as B 或not so much A as B; ? 从意思来看,该句型的基本含义为:“与其说A倒不如说B”, 或者“是B,而不是A”。但在实际翻译中十分灵活。 ? A和B两个被比较的平行结构,如:同为介词短语、动词不 定式、名词短语或其他平行结构。

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? Science moves forword, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. ? 评析:此为1994年的考研翻译真题。本题考查的 是not so much A as B这一比较句型。这里的平行 结构是两个介词短语: through the insights of great men of genius和because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools,两者 在此作状语,修饰谓语moves forword。

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? 译文:他们说,科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人 的真知灼见,不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等 更为普通的东西。

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? The conveniences that American desire reflect not so much a leisurely lifestyle as a busy lifestyle in which even minutes of time are too valuable to be wasted. ? 评析:此为1995年的考研真题。此处平行结构是两 个名词短语: a leisurely lifestyle 和a busy lifestyle, 两者都作reflect的宾语。 ? 译文:美国人所渴望的种种便利设施,与其说是反 映了一种休闲的生活方式,倒不如说是反映了一种 忙碌的生活方式,正因为忙碌,所以每分钟都很宝 贵而不容浪费。

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? The great use of a school education is not so much to teach you things as to teach you the art of learning. ? 评析:这里被比较的是两个不定式: to teach you things 和to teach you the art of learning. ? 译文:学校教育的伟大作用不在于教会你多少东 西,而在于教会你学习的技巧。

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? The great thing in this world is not so much where we stand as in what direction we are moving.
? 人生的意义不在于你目前身在何处,而在于你心 向何方。

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? He does not respect learning and prefers“sport”.The problem set for society is not the virtue of the type so much as its adequacy for its function.
? 他不重视学习,只喜欢“消遣”。社会要回答的 问题并不是这类人物有无美德,而是他是否胜任 其职务。

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? B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不……

? 如: The heart is __ intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain. [A] not so [B] not much [C] much more [D] no more

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? 心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大脑控制。 ? 答案为D

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? C) no/not any less…than…两者一样,都…… ? 注意基本上与no/not any more…than意思相反 ? 如:

She is no less beautiful than her sister. 她和她姐姐一样漂亮

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? D) (just) as…, so… 正如……, ……也…… (用倒装结构)

? 如: Just as the soil is a part of the earth, __ the atmosphere. [A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is

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? Just as virtue is its own reward, so is vice its own punishment. ? 评析:后半句采取了倒装结构,so is vice,正常语序 为so vice is its own punishment. ? 译文:善有善报,恶有恶报。 ? 这句话的意思类似于汉语中的“善有善报,恶有恶 报”。该句来自葛拉西安《智慧书》中的一篇短文:

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? Lead a good life.Two things bring life speedily to an end: folly and immorality. Some lose their life because they have not the intelligence to keep it,others because they have not the will. Just as virtue is its own reward, so is vice its own punishment.A virtuous life never dies. The firmness of the soul is communicated to the body, and a good life is not only long but also full.
? 译文:珍惜生命吧。让生命加速终结的原因有二:愚蠢和无 德。有人因为无智而毙;有人因为放纵而亡。善有善报,恶 有恶报。有德行的生命不会消亡。灵魂的坚韧使其躯体亦坚 强,因而这样美好的人生会长久而富足。
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? Just as dark clouds cannot long hide the sun, so no lies can cover up the fact. ? 乌云遮不住太阳,谎言掩盖不了事实。 ? Just as food nourishes the body, so do books enrich the mind. ? 食物滋养身体,书本丰富心灵。

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? ? ? ?

Just 也可以省去,比如, As you sow, so will you reap/so you will reap. 种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。 As land is improved by sowing it with various seeds, so is the mind by exercising it with different studies.

? 土壤因播种不同的种子而改良,智力用各科的学 习来提高。

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? As it is the mark of great minds to say many things in a few words, so it is the mark of little minds to use many words to say nothing.
? 大智者寥寥数语既能达意,寡智者口若悬 河仍言之无物。

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? E) more A than B 与其说是B不如说是A less A than B 与其说是A不如说是B

? 如: ? It is even more a picture than a poem . 这与其说是一首诗,倒不如说是一幅画。 ? It is less a picture than a poem. 这与其说是幅画,倒不如说是首诗。

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? F) 用作前置修饰语的more than,less than, no more than /nothing more than ? 如:
? We will be more than happy(=very happy) to help you. 我们会很高兴帮助你。 ? The children were less than happy about having a party. 孩子们对举行聚会并不那么开心。

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He is no more than a child. 他不过是个孩子。 He was regarded as nothing more than (=only) an amateur.
他仅仅被看作业余爱好者。

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? 3.2.2比较范围 ? 1)最高级比较范围用介词in, over, of, among。 ? in, (all) over用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world. ? of, among用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如: among the teachers, of the four dresses.

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? 如: ? __ all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength. [A] Among [B] Of [C] For [D] To

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? 2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围 应用: any other +单数名词 the other +复数名词 the others anyone/anything else 上述词是用于将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关 键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是other,否则会造成逻 辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。

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? 3)most可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于 very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the ? 如: ? a most interesting book,most expensive restaurants ? 要注意与 “the +形容词最高级+of + 名词”的结构 表示的最高级的区别

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? He spoke in the warmest of voices . ? They have been most kind to me . ? Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country. ? Chinese is the most difficult of language. Chinese is a most difficult language.

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? 3.3不用比较级和最高级的形容词
? 3.3.1表示颜色的有:white, black ? 3.3.2表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level ? 3.3.3表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy

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? 3.3.4表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike ? 3.3.5 表示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final

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? 3.3.6.表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief ,minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite ? 3.3.7含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.

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? 3.4平行结构与比较级

平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或 者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如:

? The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer does at the moment he composes. ? 评析:此处does代替enjoys,表示对音乐的欣赏,as much as 表示“同等程度上” ? 译文:一个真正懂音乐的听众应该是在听音乐时,既置身于 音乐其中,又可游离于音乐之外,他对音乐的欣赏程度,几 乎等同于作曲家本人在创作该曲子时的欣赏程度。

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? 大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的 ? 有的是递进对比: not only…but (also) ;prefer…to…;rather than ? 有的是同类对比: and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…; neither…nor…..

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? 平行结构测试时候注意以下几点:
? 3.4.1注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上 是否相同。如: ? It is better to die one’s feet than __ . [A] living on one’s knees [B] live on one’s knees [C] on one’s knees [D] to live on one’s knees

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? 3.4.2其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行 结构 1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结 构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。

如:

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? We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style___ in a personal style. [A] rather than [B] other than [C] better than [D] less than

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? For the new country to survive,__ for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required. [A] to name a few [B] let alone [C] not to speak [D] let’s say

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? 2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而 且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。 ? 如: ? At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

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Exercise Three
1.The little man was ___ more than one meter fifty tall.(1995-1-49)(1997-1-36) A. nearly B. quite C. hardly D. almost

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2.If tap water were as dangerous as some people think ___ would be getting sick. (1998-1-41) A. a lot of more us B. more a lot of us C. a lot of us more D. a lot more of us

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3.Indeed, almost every scientist now finds it impossible to read all the works relevant to his own subject,__ extensively outside of it.(1993年1月 六级题) A. much more to read B. much less to read C. much less reading D. still more reading

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4.The individual TV viewer invariably senses that he or she is __ an anonymous, statistically insignificant part of a huge and diverse audience.(2001年考研题) A. everything except B. anything but C. no less than D. nothing more than

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5.The population of many Alaska cities has __ doubled in the past three years.(托福题) A. larger than B. more than C. as great as D. as many as

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答案
1.C 那个小个子男人仅仅只有一米五高。 “hardly more than”意为“仅仅……” 2.D 如果自来水真像某些人所想的那样危险, 我们当中早就 有更多的人生病了。 a lot ,much, far, even等表程度副词以及一些表示数量的 词修饰形容词或副词比较级时,应该在比较级的前面。 3.B 事实上,几乎所有的科学家都发现,现在连与自己的学 科相关的著作都读不完,更不用说去广泛阅读自己学科之 外的东西了。 much less 或 still less 用于否定句中,其意为“更不用说, 何况”

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4.D 在大量形形色色的观众中,每一个个体的电视观众都感 到自己不过是其中一个匿名的部分。从统计角度来看,不过 是微不足道的一部分。 nothing more than “仅仅,不过” 5.B 在过去三年中,阿拉斯加的许多城市的人口已经翻了一 番多。

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句子成分之间的匹配和协调—— 一致关系
? 英语句子成分要求两个成分在人称和数方面协调 配合的语言现象叫做句子成分之间的一致关系 (concord),一致关系主要主语和谓语动词在人 称、数方面的一致。此外,人称代词与名词的数 也要求协调一致。 ? 利用句子成分间的一致关系,可以比较准确地把 握相关成分间的逻辑关系与含义乃至推断这些部 分的确切语义。

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4.1代词的指代
4.1.1 that的指代作用 that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是 复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如 出现在比较结构中的that of。如

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1.Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.

这里that指代前面的the role。

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2.No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

此处that指代前面的bread.

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4.1.2 one的指代作用
one指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为 ones。the one指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。 如:

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A good writer is __ who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way. [A] that [B] he [C] one [D] this

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4.1.3 do的替代作用
do代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。

如:
For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.

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? 4.2 代词指代一致问题
代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否 一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面保持一致

4.2.1 指示代词的一致
指示代词that 和those 的用法之一是代替上文中的 名词,此时,that和those 所对应的分别为单数形 式的名词和复数形式的名词。

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? The diameter of this star is nearly ten times that of the Earth. 这颗恒星的直径差不多是地球直径的十倍。 ? Compare Chopin’s waltzes with those of today. 将肖邦的华尔兹舞曲同今天的华尔兹舞曲进 行比较。

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4.2.2 人称代词的一致 人称代词应该与它在句中所对应的名词或代 词在数、人称、性、格等方面保持一致。

? Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect. 这里he指代前面的person。 (人称的一致)

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? It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point. 这里its指代前面的两人的friendship。

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? Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me. 这里me必须用宾格形式。(格的一致)

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4.2.3 不定代词的一致
1)当不定代词everybody, everyone, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one 等 作主语时,与其对应的人称代词的主格、宾格、和 所有格形式,在正式文体中分别为he (or she ),him ( or her) 和his( or her ),在非正式 文体中分别为they, them和their: 如:

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Anyone can do it if he or she tries/if they try. 如果大家都肯试试,人人都能做的。 If somebody calls, tell him/them I am out. 要是有人打电话来,告诉他/他们我出去了。 Has everyone finished his or her/their drink? 每个人都喝完酒了吗?

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2)当不定代词one 作主语时,与其对应的人称代词
的主格、宾格和所有格形式,在英国英语中分别为 one, one和one’s,在美国英语中分别为he, him和 his:

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If one wants to be a success, one/he must work diligently.想要成功,就必须勤奋工作。 What ought one to do when a beggar asks one/him for money?当一个乞丐向一个人讨钱时,这个人该怎么 办? One should do one’s/his duty.每个人都应当尽职。

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3)当不定代词everything, something, anything, nothing等作主语时,与其对应的人称代词的主格、 宾格和所有格形式分别为it, it和its:

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Nothing has been damaged, has it? 什么都没损坏,是不是? Something has happened ,and I want you to tell me about it. 出事了,我要你告诉我是怎么回事。 Everything is good in its season. 当令果子趁鲜卖。

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4)当具有单数和复数两种意义的集体名词作主语时, 与其对应的人称代词的主格、宾格和所有格形式分 别为it, it, its和they, them, their:

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This committee is/are very proud of its/their achievements, isn’t it/aren’t they? 委员会对取得的成就感到自豪,是不是? The public says/say that nobody cares about it/them and its/their problems. 公众认为没有人关心他们和他们的问题。

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4.2.4反身代词的一致
1)反身代词应该在人称和数上与它所对应的名词 或代词一致: 如: You shouldn’t always think of yourself.你不应该总 为自己着想。 The wounded horse could not raise itself from the ground.那批受伤的马无法从地上站起来。

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2)当不定代词one 作主语时,与其对应的反身代词形 式,在英国英语中为oneself,在美国英语中为himself. 如: One should wash oneself/himself regularly. 一个人应该经常洗澡。 One can’t enjoy oneself/himself if one/he is too tired. 一个人要是太疲劳就无法开心。

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4.3代词指代一致必须注意以下几个 原则和规律:
4.3.1 邻近和靠近原则
由either ? or, neither?nor, not only?but (also)连接先行词时候,如果两个先行词在数和性 上保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果 两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻 近的先行词在数和性上保持一致。

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? Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her. Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination . If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink .

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4.3.2 当no one, everyone, each, everybody,
none ,anybody, someone, somebody 用作主语或主 语的限定词时候,或者anything, nothing, something ,everything等不定代词作主语时候, 其相应的代词一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形 式。如:

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? Everybody talked at the top of his voice. None of the boys can do it , can he? Everything is ready, isn’t it?

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4.3.3 当主语为复数形式,后跟each作同位语时, 如果each位于动词之前,其后的代词或相应的限 定词用复数形式;如果 each位于动词之后,其后 的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。 如: They each have two coats . we are each responsible for his own family .

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Exercise Four
1.The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half _____. A. of last years B. those of last years C. of those of last year D. that of last year’s

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2.Anthropologists (A) investigate the customs of (B) different groups of people, particularly (C) that in (D) isolated areas.

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答案
? 1. D
报名参加今年马拉松赛的人数是去年的一半.

? 2. C—those
人类学家对不同群体的人的习俗进行调查研究,尤 其是对那些住在与世隔绝的地区的人.

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? 5.1主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致。把
握主谓一致问题,主要解决的是对不同结构的主 语单复数的认定,进而选择适当的谓语。解决主 谓一致主要遵循三个原则: 语法一致原则 逻辑一致原则 毗邻一致原则

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? 5.1.1 语法一致
? 英语中主语与谓语之间的语法一致原则主要指谓语 动词为be动词(或谓语动词词组的第一个成分为be 动词)时,主语与谓语之间的协调一致关系。其他 动词只有一般现在时才体现一致关系,即主语为第 三人称单数时,动词后需要添加-s, -es 或变词末-y为 i再加 -es 的形式。个别助词也需体现一致关系,如 shall/should用于第一人称单、复数主语, will/would用于第三人称单、复数主语,will/would 用于第三人单、复数主语。

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? 倘若这些助动词与主语的一致关系发生悖 逆,则助动词甚至全句表达的语义往往会 发生变异。

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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

He is an honest man. 他是个诚实的人。 He was a doctor when he was young. 他年轻时当过医生。 You are just the man I want. 你正是我要找的人。 I took a quick glance at the house and noticed it was very old. ? 我瞥了一眼房子,注意到房子已很古旧了。 ? I figure you people are pretty well fixed. ? 我估计你们这些人的境遇都很不错。
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? So you are all going to Hang Zhou for your holidays. Lucky you! ? 这么说,你们全都要去杭州度假。你们可真运气! ? The vehicle was found abandoned near the village. ? 车子被发现扔在村子附近。 ? Anything black absorbs most of the light rays that fall on it. ? 任何黑色的物体都能吸收照射到它上面的大部分光线。 ? His imagination so abstracted him that his name was called twice before he answered. ? 他正凝神遐想,别人叫了他两边才吱声答应。 ? We have never accepted the belief that synthetics are superior to natural rubber. ? 我们从来不相信合成橡胶比天然橡胶好。

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

The dash adds on an afterthought. 破折号用来附加事后想到的内容。 He will buy back his property. 他将赎回自己的财产。 When shall I know the result of the medical checkup? 我什么时候才能知道体检结果。 I wondered if I should be in time for the train. 我不知道是否能来得及赶上火车。 The manager would have his own way. 那位经理总是一意孤行。 They don’t understand the way he does things. 他们不理解他的办事方式。 If he catches you, he will let you have it. 如果你让他给抓住,那就有你受的了。
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? 5.1.2 逻辑一致
? 1)逻辑一致是指谓语动词的形式不取决于主 语的表层语法形态,而取决于它的深层逻辑 含义。虽然一个做主语的名词的形式是单数, 但如果它表示的是复数的含义,谓语动词也 应用复数形式,反之亦然。有时同一个词在 不同的语境表示不同的逻辑意义,则需要依 据其含义使用不同的动词形式,应注意体味、 把握不同的动词形式,应注意体味、把握不 同的动词形式所体现的主语的确切的逻辑含 义:
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? ? ? ?

The family (be) a happy one. 那是个幸福的家庭。 My family (be) all tall. 我的家人个子都很高大。

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? The recent statistics on marriage (be) interesting. ? 最近关于婚姻情况的统计资料挺有意思。 ? Statistics (be) not as difficult as some people think. ? 统计学并不像某些人想象的那么难。

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? The committee (meet) today at four. ? 委员会今天下午四时开会。 ? The committee (be) arguing for an hour before they gave their votes. ? 在投票表决之前,委员会内部争论了一个小时。

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? ? ? ?

Ethics (deal) with moral conduct. 伦理学是研究道德行为的。 The ethics of his decision (be) doubtful. 他那决定中的道德准绳值得怀疑。

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? The police (be) searching for a tall dark man. ? 警察正在搜查一个皮肤黝黑的高个子男人。 ? At this point the police (be) called in. ? 就在这个时候,警察被叫进来了。

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? 2)充当主语的名词词组即使具有可数名词复数的 形态,但表达的若作为一个单位看待的单数的含义, 动词也需要用单数的形式; ? 含有分数、百分数的名词词组的后的动词形式依据 名词词组充当主语的句子,谓语动词往往用单数形 式,如:

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? ? ? ? ? ?

Fifty students for a class is the utmost limit. 每班人数最多不能超过50人。 Two hours is the time limit for the examination. 本次考试时限为两个小时。 Is ten dollars a big sum to him? 对他来说十块钱就是个大数目吗?

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? 3)用连接词连接的主语后的谓语动词的数视情况 而定。一般说来,用and连接的并列主语后用复数 动词,但如果and连接的是指同一个事物或人,或 指联系密切、常作为一个整体看待的人或事物,谓 语动词也用单数; ? 用as well as连接的名词词组与连接语之前的名词的 数一致; ? 名词后用介词with连接其他名词时,动词与with之 前的名词的数一致; ? 用both…and连接的并列名词主语往往用复数动词, 如:
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? A knife and fork is needed when one is eating. ? 人们进餐时需要用刀叉。 ? A cart and horse was what he needed to carry himself away. ? 他只需要一辆马车把自己载走。 ? This bread and butter is too thick. ? 这片涂黄油的面包太厚了。 ? A watch and chain was given to him by his father as a birthday present. ? 父亲送他一块带链的表作为生日礼物。 ? A rod and line is needed for angling. ? 钓鱼需要鱼线鱼竿。
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? English and Chinese are quite different languages. ? 英语和汉语是完全不同的语言。 ? Both the rubber and pith ball are negatively charged. ? 这时,橡胶棒和木髓都带上了负电荷。 ? I as well as they am anxious about your safe arrival. ? 我跟他们一样急于知道你平安到达的消息。 ? She, with her two daughters, comes to spend the weekend on the farm once every two weeks. ? 她和她的两个女儿每隔一周要到农场来度一次周 末。
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? 4)含有否定意义的不定代词或其他一些不定代词 做主语时,谓语动词往往用单数,其中none是例外。 ? 用含有every 构成的合成词做主语时,句子后边部 分的代词往往遵循逻辑一致原则用复数; ? 表示数目意义的词做主语往往用单数动词; ? 形容词前边加定冠词表一类人或事物时,后边动词 用复数; ? 形容词性从句中动词的数往往与从句先行词的数一 致

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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Each of them is to pay his own fine. 他们得各人付自己的罚款。 There was nobody there. 那儿一个人也没有。 There is nothing I should enjoy more. 这是我最大的乐事。 Nevertheless, none of the scientists on the scene were prepared for the awesome scale of the events that soon followed. ? 然而,在现场的科学家们并没有一位对即将面临的可怕事件 有所准备。 ? Everybody initiates and receives messages in some form or other. ? 每个人都以不同的方式发出并接收信息。
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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

11 minus 4 leaves 7. 十一减去四得七。 28divided by 4 is 7. 二十八除以四得七。 The rich are not always happy. 有钱人并不总是幸福的。 The deaf and dumb need special help. 聋哑人需要特殊帮助。 There is something in his manner which irritates others. 他的态度有激怒别人的地方。 There were few eggs which weren’t broken. 没破掉的蛋没有几个。

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? 5.1.3毗邻一致
? 毗邻一致原则是指句子中主语是由关联词语或其他 连接语引导的两个或两个以上的名词词组充当时, 谓语动词的数与其毗邻的名词词组的数保持一致的 原则,如:

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? Not only Henry but also his friends were unequivocally apposed to the compromise. ? 不仅亨利还有他的朋友们都反对这种妥协。 ? Either my brother or his friends are going. ? 要么是我弟弟,要么是他的朋友们要去。 ? Neither the girls nor John is to blame. ? 既不怨姑娘们,也不怨约翰。 ? Cash or bills are accepted here in this store. ? 本店既接受现款又接受支票。

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? 5.2很多情况下应该综合利用这三个原则来
处理主谓一致,在不同情况下可能应用三个 原则中的不同原则,具体应用哪种原则应该 视具体情况而定。总结如下:

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? 5.2.1谓语动词用单数的情况
1.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语, 谓语用单数。 如: Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the cones that fit him or her. (1987年考研题)

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2. 表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、 容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数 如: Two weeks was too long . Five times five makes twenty five.

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3.当and 连接的两个单数形式的名词作主语,在意义上指 同一人、同一物、同一事或同一概念时,谓语动词用单 数
如:

law and order 法制 a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 the needle and thread 针线 不断摸索 horse and carriage 马车 bread and butter 奶油面包 涨潮落

soap and water 肥皂水 fork and knife 刀叉 trial and error 反复尝试, time and tide 岁月 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮

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? His warmest admirer and severest critic was his wife. 他的妻子是他最热心的崇拜者和最严厉的批评者。 ? Whisky and soda is always my favorite drink. 威士忌加苏打总是最和我的口味。 ? War and peace is a constant theme in history. 战争与和平永远是历史主题。

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? 再如: If law and order is not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe. Bread and butter is our daily food . Time and tide waits for no man.

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4.表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词以及表示国家、 组织等名称的专有名词是复数形式,作主语时候谓 语动词用单数形式 arthritics关节炎 statistics统计学 measles 麻疹 phonetics 语音学 optics 光学 genetics 遗传学 General Motors 通用公司 the Netherlands 荷兰 the New York Times 纽约时报 the United Nations 联合国
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如: Linguistics is a branch of study on human language . 语言学是研究人类语言的分支学科。 Statistics is an indispensable analytical tool in modern society. 统计学是现代社会必不可少的分析工具。 Measles is much less common now than it used to be . 现在麻疹远没有过去常见。 General Motors is a large multinational company. 通用公司是一家大型的跨国公司。

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5.有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数,根据意
义一致原则动词用单数 如: The chaos was stopped by the police. The news is a great encouragement to us. A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend.

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6. a pair of + 由两部分构成的物体的名词(如: shoes, scissors, glasses, jeans, pants, trousers 等)做主语时,谓语动词用单数。 如: My new pair of pants is being altered. 我的一条短裤正在被修改。 A pair of glasses costs quite a lot these days. 现在配一副眼镜要花很多钱。

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? 但是这些名词直接作主语时,谓语用复数。 如: My black trousers have worn out. 我的黑裤子已经穿破了。

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? 5.2.2 谓语用复数情况
如:

1. 由and, both ?and, 连接的并列主语,和 both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓 语动词通常用复数形式 Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college.

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2.集体名词police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth后常用复数形式的动词

如:
The Chinese people are brave and hardworking. The cattle are grazing in the sunshine .

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3.当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓语动词用 复数形式 如:

The Japanese were once very aggressive .

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4.某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人,做主语 时候,谓语动词用复数

如:
The rich are not always selfish.

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5.不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的复数名 词修饰时,谓语动词用复数

如:
Three million tons of coal were exported that year.

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? 5.2.3谓语动词可用单数,也可以 用复数的情况
1. 就近一致原则 这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取决于 最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这种情况的 主要由以下几种可能:

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1) 由连词 either?or?; neither?nor?; whether? or?;not only?but (also) ;or 等 连接的并列主语 如: Neither money nor fame has influence on me . Not only you but also he is wrong .

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2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主 语一致

如:
Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced policeman. Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees.

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2. 主语带有(together/along)with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than, except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等 等附加成分,谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然 与主语保持一致

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? 如: Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organized to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations. The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations. (1981年考研 题)

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3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与 先行词一致。 如: Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood. (1996年考研题) There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community. (1990年考研题)

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4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词 的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用 复数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth…) of; eighty (ten, twenty…) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等

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如: Two-thirds of people present are women. Lots of damage was caused by the fire .

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5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语 表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语动词就 用单数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就 用复数。 ? 这些集体名词如:army, audience, band ,government ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family 等等

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? The family is the basic unit of our society. The family were watching the TV .

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? 6.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数 ? 第一组: a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数

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? 第二组;
the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 neither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数

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? 第三组;
more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数

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? 第四组;
the greater part of a large proportion of 50% of one third of plenty of the rest of 谓语的数与of 后面的名词一致

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? 第五组; (n)either ?(n)or?. not only?.. but also ?? not ?..but ?? 谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but also/ but引导的后面部分)一致. 注意比较: More students than one have been referred to . More than one student is going to buy this book.

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Exercise Five
1.How close parents are to their children__ a strong influence on the character of the children.(1991-6-69) A. have B. has C. having D. to have
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2. Neither of the young men who had applied for a position in the university___.(1998-1-33) A. has been accepted B. have been accepted C. was accepted D. were accepted

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3. The growth of part-time and flexible working patterns, and of training and retraining schemes,___ more women to take advantage of employment opportunities. (2000-6-43) A. have allowed B. allow C. allowing D. allows
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答案

1. B 父母与子女亲近的程度对于子女的性格培养 有强烈的影响。 2. C 两个申请这个大学职位的年轻人都没被录用。 3. D 有弹性的兼职工作方式以及培训计划的推广, 使得越来越多的妇女能利用就业的机会。

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Normal Word Order

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? 6.1 英语句子语序常态 ? 英语句子主要成分在句子中的顺序是相对稳 定的,句子成分按相对稳定的顺序出现,就 是英语句子的语序常态(normal word order) ? 英语主要句子成分的常态语序一般遵循主语 在前,谓语位于主语之后,如果还需要宾语 或表语,它们又在谓语动词之后。

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? 了解句子语序的常态可以排除生词多、句子结构复 杂的干扰,迅速准确地把握句子的大致类别、句子 结构的大致走向,信息传递的大致趋势,信息的大 致类别;在接受信息时,可以有效地预测交际内容, 知道别人下边将会说、写些什么。 ? 使用语言时,了解常态语序就可以有个大致遵循的 准绳,前面说了什么,后面应该说些什么,做到心 中有数,使交际从容不迫地进行,即使在口头交际 中需要思考、选择措辞,也不至于语无伦次。

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? The use of advanced techniques by farmers who could afford them could raise their incomes through increased productivity although prices went down. ? 虽然价格下跌,用得起先进技术的农民仍可以通过 提高生产力来增加自己的收入。 ? The ratio in the table shows the extent to which value added in agriculture has been protected relative to value added in industry. ? 表中的比率表明与工业增值相比,农业增值所受到 的保护程度。

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? Now I was being given the responsibility to help steer my adopted country through one of the gravest constitutional crises of its history. ? 如今我被赋予了一项重大的责任,要协助领导这个 养育我的国家度过她历史上一场最严重的宪法危机。 ? If we discipline ourselves to adopt periodically a “nonego” state, we can perceptively drink in the full meaning of a situation without imposing ourselves upon it. ? 倘若我们训练自己定期地置身于“无我”状态。我 们就能敏锐地领导局势的全部含义,而不会上当受 骗。
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? The idea of fighting to protect ourselves where necessary and of concentrating at chosen points to destroy the enemy is difficult to express. ? 但在必要的时候为保全自己而战,选择战场,集结 兵力以歼灭敌人等种种战术思想,实在难以用言语 予以说明。 ? Heavier atoms, such as those of plutonium, also important for the release of atomic energy, have been made artificially from uranium. ? 更重的原子如钛原子(它对原子能释放也起着极为 重要的作用),是用人工方法从铀中制造出来的。
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? Events of the past week had also demonstrated how precarious was the base from which our diplomacy was operating.
? 上周的事态演变表明我们从事外交活动的基础是 何等的不牢固。

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Inverted Word Order

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近两年倒装结构在四六级中的考查
? 【CET-6:2007.6】

? Only in the small town does he feel secure and relaxed.(他才感到安全和放松).
? 【CET-6:2007.12】

? The witness was told that under no circumstances should he lie to the court.(他都不应该对法庭说谎)
.
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? 【CET-6:2007.1】

? Not until the deadline did he send (out) (直到截止日他才寄出) his application form.
? 【CET-4:2006.6】

? The more you explain, the more confused I am (我愈糊涂).

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? 6.2常态语序的悖逆——倒装

? 倘若上述句子成分的语序状态出现悖逆,即 主语位于谓语动词或其他成分之后,人们就 称其为倒装语序(inverted word order)。
? 倒装语序是一种非常态语序,是语言使用者 为了达到特定的交际目的所使用的特殊的语 言形式。

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? 从形式上分,倒装分为全部倒装和部分倒 装。
? 从使用目的上分,倒装可分为语法倒装和 修辞倒装。语法倒装指的是语法规则要求 的倒装,修辞倒装指的是出于加强语气或 强调某个成分的需要而使用的倒装手段。

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类别 完全倒装

形式

例句

谓语动词全部位于主语 There will be a party tonight. 之前
今晚有个聚会。 Off flew the birds. 鸟儿飞走了。

部分倒装

第一个或仅有的助动词 Never that will do. 或情态动词位于主语之 那绝对不行。 What have you been 前
doing?

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? 6.2.1 完全倒装 ? 完全倒装是指整个谓语动词部分都置于主语 之前的倒装。完全倒装往往用在谓语词为be 动词的疑问句中,或为了达到某种特定的交 际目的将副词词组、分词词组以及介词词组 置于句首使用的倒装

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? 用全部倒装的情况
1.状语位于句首时所引起的倒装 ? 1)当位于句首的状语是一些表示地点的介词短 语或表示方向的副词(如away, back, down, in, off, out, up)时,常常引起倒装(主语为人称 代词除外),其形式为全部倒装: 如:

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? Beneath the streets of a modern city exists the network of walls, columns, cables, pipes, and tunnels. 在现代城市的街道下面,有着由墙、支柱、电缆、 管道和地沟组成的网络。 Out rushed the children.(比较:Out they rushed.) 孩子们一下子冲了进来。 Away went the car like whirlwind. 汽车旋风般地开走了。

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? At the South Pole __ ,the coldest and most desolate region on earth.(托福题) A. Antarctica lies there B. where Antarctica lies C. Antarctica lies D. lies Antarctica

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? 答案:D ? 译文“南极洲位于南极,它是地球上最寒冷和最 荒凉的地区。”

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2)以here, there, next, then 等开头的句子 常常为倒装句(主语为人称代词时除外), 其形式为全部倒装,如: ? Here comes Peter!(比较:Here he comes!) 彼得来了。 ? There stood the piano against the wall. 靠墙放着一架钢琴。 ? Next comes the question of pay. 其次是工资问题。 ? Then came the war. 接着就爆发了战争。
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? 2.表语位于句首时所引起的倒装 当作表语的形容词、副词、介词短语等位于句首时, 常常引起倒装,其形式为完全倒装,如: Lively and interesting are the pictures of the past in this book. 这本书里的老照片生动而有趣。 Below is a famous hotel. 下面是一家著名的旅馆。 Among those present were Prof. Sharp and some of his students. 在出席的人当中,有夏普教授和他的学生。
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? 3.谓语的一部分位于句首时所引起的倒装
谓语的一部分的不定式、现在分词或过去分词位于 句首时,便引起句子的倒装,其形式为完全倒装, 如: To be closely followed are the directions given to us in his letter. 要严格遵循他在信中给我们的指示。 Standing in front of me was a little boy who lived nearby. 站在我面前的男孩住在附近。 Written on a sheet of paper was their suggestion on how to render after-sales service. 在一张纸上写着他们关于如何提供售后服务的建议。
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? 6.2.2部分倒装
部分倒装是指谓语动词的一部分(往往是谓语部分 中的第一个主助动词或情态助动词)置于主语之前, 谓语动词的其余部分仍至于主语之后的倒装句。 ? 部分倒装常见于谓语动词包含了两个或两个以上部 分的疑问句,否定词或准否定词位于句首的句子, 有时也见于表示让步意义的句子。后两种句子的谓 语部分若没有情态助动词或主助动词,需要添加主 助动词再将主助动词置于主语之前

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? 1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,
若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装: never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in vain, still less。

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? 如: Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on. ? Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state. (1985年考研题)

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? 注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根
据人称和时态加助动词do。如: Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly. (1983年考研题)

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? 2)同学们要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句 的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如:
Suddenly, Gallup’s name was on everyone’s lips; not only was he the prophet of the moment, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of prediction.

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? 2.以only修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)
开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装: only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because.

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Only then did I notice the change in his attitude. 只是在那时我才注意到他态度的变化。 Only outside the Earth’s atmosphere is it safe for a space vessel to attain extremely high velocity. 只有在地球大气层之外,宇宙飞船达到极高的速 度才是安全的。 Only after you have paid a $15 mailing fee will application materials be mailed to you . 只有你付了15元的邮寄费之后,才会给你邮寄申 请材料。 Only one more point will I make. 我只再说一点。
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? 3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要 部分倒装: often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point, many a time. 如:

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So involved with their computers __ that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.(2001考研题) A. became the children B. become the children C. had the children become D. do the children become

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? 答案:D ? 译文:这些孩子如此痴迷于计算机,以致计算机 夏令营的领导们往往不得不强迫他们停下来参加 些体育活动和游戏。 ? So ?that 位于句首所引起的倒装句为部分倒装 形式,如果谓语动词为be 的一般现在时或一般过 去时,则为完全倒装形式。

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? 4.比较从句的倒装: as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短 语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。 ? 注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则 不倒装

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? 如:
Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

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? 5.用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(物)的 肯定句或否定句中的倒装 1) 肯定重复倒装用:so They have got up, and so has jack 2) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more If you don’t agree to our plan, neither will they

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? 6.“not only?but also”结构时,如果not only 放在句首,则前半句倒装,but (also)句子 后面不倒装 ? 如: Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke.

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? 6.2.3 倒装句的交际功能
? 按交际功能划分,英语倒装句可分为语法 倒装和修辞倒装两个类别,每类又可分为 若干个小类。

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? 1.语法倒装
? 语法倒装是指为适应表达某种特定的语法 功能的需要而使用的形式较为固定的倒装 句式,语法倒装常见于疑问句、让步从句、 存现句、省略if的虚拟条件从句,部分特殊 的感叹句以及由so、nor 引导的表示相似情 况的某些句子。

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? ? ? ?

1)疑问倒装 Why do you always argue against me? 你为何和我唱反调? How would you attack the unemployment problem? ? Did you catch my point? ? 你懂我的意思了吗?

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? 2)让步倒装 ? 以as引导的让步状语从句将句子表语或者 主动词置于句首时,从句的主语如为名词 词组,需要使用主谓倒装语序,主语如为 代词,则使用常态语序。 ? 英语中还有一种中古英语残余的be+主语+ (ever)+表语的倒装句式,表达的也是让 步意义,如:

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? Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident.
? 虽然这显得有点不可思议,事故中却没有 人受伤。 ? Much as I would like to help, I have a lot to do. ? 虽然我很想帮忙,但我有很多事情要做。

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? Object as you may, I’ll go. ? 纵使你反对,我也要去。 ? Dream like as was the story, it was true. ? 尽管这故事象梦幻一样,但它确实是真实 的。 ? Try as you may, you will never succeed. ? 不管你怎么努力,都不会成功。
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? ? ? ? ?

Home is home, be it ever so homely. 家纵简陋,总归是家。 Happen what may, we shall not change our mind. 不管发生什么事,我们都不改初衷。 Be it rainy or sunny, the match will be played as scheduled. ? 无论阴晴,比赛都将如期举行。

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? Be the boy ever so tall, he is only 10. ? 这男孩个字尽管很高,他仅仅只有十岁。 ? Be he ever so clever, he became the victim of his own cleverness. ? 尽管他绝顶聪明,结果聪明反被聪明误。

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? 3)虚拟倒装 ? 虚拟条件句省略掉引导词if后,从句需要使 用倒装语序。此外,一些表示祝愿意义的 虚拟句也需要使用倒装语序,如:

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? Should he change his mind, no one would blame him. ? 如果他改变主意,也不见得会有人责怪他。 ? Had it not been for his kind help, I could not have got such gigantic achievement. ? 倘若不是他善意相助,我不可能取得如此巨大的 成绩。 ? Were I to do that what would you say? ? 假如我那样做,你会怎么说?

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? ? ? ? ?

May you live long.祝你长寿! May you succeed.祝你成功! May he never set foot in this house again! 但愿他永远不再走进这幢房子。 Long live the great unity of the people of the world! ? 全世界人民大团结万岁!

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? 4)存现/认同/引语倒装 ? 以there引导的表示存现意义的句子 ? 以so, nor 等引导的表示上下文情况也同样 适合的意义的句子 ? 直接引用某人所说的话以后再加说话人 ? 表示语言、思维动作动词的句子中

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? There appears growing evidence to the contrary. ? 越来越多的反证显现了。 ? There remained just a little money. What was to be done? ? 只剩下一点点钱了,怎么办呢? ? There existed different opinions on this questions. ? 对这个问题曾有人有过不同的看法。

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? ? ? ? ?

You are clever and so is your brother. He quickened his pace and so did I . If he is allowed to leave, so should I . They are happy, nor need we worry. The day was bright, nor were there clouds above.

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? “I have something to tell you," said Mary. ? “That’s just what I am afraid of," thought Johnny, but did not say so.

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? 2.修辞倒装
? 修辞倒装是指说话人为了达到某种特定的 修辞效果或为了传输某种特定的信息而使 用的倒装语序。

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? 1)表示感慨意义的倒装
? 有时候,说话人为了表示感慨、谓叹的意 义,可能将某些形容词或形容词连用so等 副词或否定词置于句首,这时,句子需要 用倒装语序,如:

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? So absurd is the idea that number 13 brings bad luck. ? 认为十三这个数字不吉利的想法何其荒谬。 ? So absolutely preposterous is this comment. ? 这种评论真是荒谬绝伦。 ? Strange creatures were women! ? 女人真是奇怪的生物!

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? Never have I seen such a mess! ? 我还从没见过如此凌乱的场面! ? So bleak and desolate was the scenery that she could not keep tears from trickling down her cheeks. ? 景色十分荒凉,她禁不住潸然泪下。 ? Great was the labor, priceless the road. ? 工作何其艰辛。道路弥足珍贵。

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? 2)表现凸显意义的倒装句
? 倒装句有时将句子中的某种部分置于句首, 可以达到凸显、强调该部分的修辞效果, 如:

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? (For a long time, he refused to talk to his wife and kept her in ignorance of his trouble.)Equally strange was his behavior to his son. ? (他在很长时间内都不肯与妻子谈及这件事, 不让她知道自己的烦恼。)在儿子眼里,他 的行为也同样显得十分古怪。

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? 3)行使衔接功能的倒装句
? 有时一个句子需要倒装才能使某个句子成 分与上下文衔接紧密。如:

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? Later someone told me that the story appeared in a magazine shortly before the First World War. That magazine story, and the person who wrote it, I have never been able to track down. ? 倘若上例中后边一句不将宾语置于句首, 突然出的找故事的话题会让读者感到生硬、 突然。

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? As a matter of lopsided fact, the U.S today, with a mere 5% of the population, consumes as much man-made coolness as the whole rest of the world put together. ? Just as amazing is the speed with which this situation came to be. ? 上例中第二段以类比的方式借助倒装语序起句, 句首的表语起到承上启下的作用,使两段文字水 乳交融、联系紧凑、浑然一体。

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? 4)表示委婉请求意义的倒装句 ? 有时,一个使用倒装语序的句子可以表达 请求的含义,当然,这种请求是隐含的意 义,就象说“某处有某事需要做”即隐含 有请受话人去做的意义一样,如:

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? Up in the office are so many affairs that have to be handled within 12 hours. ? Up in your room is so much homework that needs to be done before you go to bed. ? Out in the fields is so much work to be finished before dark.

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? 5)表示描绘意义的倒装句
? 这类倒装句往往将表示动作方位意义的副 词置于句首,获得强烈的动感及生动形象 的描绘效果,主语如为名词词组,句子后 边部分需要倒装,如为代词,则主谓用常 态语序,如:

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? ? ? ?

Away went the car like a whirlwind. 汽车风驰电掣般地开走了。 Out rushed a group of noisy boys. 一群吵吵嚷嚷的男孩子一下子涌了出来。

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? 6.3倒装句中前置语的类型
? 倒装句除了以上两种分类方式外,还可以 按句首前置语的类型来分类。 ? 本节不涉及疑问倒装

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? 6.3.1否定词(组)前置倒装
? Never has a depreciatory word been uttered behind his back. ? 从来没有人在背后贬低过他。 ? Hardly had we begun the climb when the snow began to come down. ? 我们刚一开始爬山就下起雪来了。 ? Scarcely had I stepped out of the house when I heard a shot within. ? 我刚走出屋子就听到里面一声枪响。
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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Under no circumstances should you see them again. 你无论如何不该再和他们见面了。 No sooner had I lain down than the telephone rang. 我刚躺下,电话铃就响了。 On no account should we desert our ship. 无论如何我们都不应弃船逃生。 At no time will China be he first to use nuclear weapons. ? 中国在任何时候绝不首先使用核武器。 ? Nowhere else could one find such beautiful scenery. ? 别处找不到如此美丽的景色。
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? 6.3.2分词前置倒装 ? 置于句首的可以是现在分词也可以是过去分 词,现在分词词组置于句首时往往有动态含 义,过去分词词组置于句首则往往具有状态 意义,如:

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? Hidden in the cellar were several barrels of wine. ? 地窖里藏了有几桶酒。 ? Concealed from the road by a small wood was a dilapidated old cottage. ? 隐没在一个小树林里的是一座破败的旧屋,旧屋从 路上看不见。

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? Caught in the rush was a blue-eyed girl. ? 挤在人流中动弹不得的是一位蓝眼睛的姑娘。 ? Squeezed into the suitcase were his articles for daily use. ? 塞进手提箱里的是他的一些日常生活用品。 ? Buried in the sands was an ancient village. ? 掩埋在沙漠里的是一座古代的村落。

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? Marching at the head of the procession was Mr. Wang, the organizer of the incident. ? 走在队伍前边的是此次事件的组织者王先生。 ? Flowing quietly in the deep valley was a clear little stream. ? 在深谷中静静流淌的是一条清澈的小溪。 ? Scattering in the vast South Sea are numerous peallike isles. ? 星星点点在散布在广袤无垠的南海上是许多明珠似 的小岛。

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? ? ? ? ? ?

6.3.3副词前置倒装 Then came the exciting moment. 这时激动人心的时刻到来了。 Now comes his opportunity to display his talents. 他大显身手的时机到了。 There appear to be several reasons for changing their plans. ? 他们之所以改变计划看来有好几条理由。 ? Up jumped Peter with an angry look on his face. ? 彼得满脸怒容地一下子站了起来。

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? 6.3.4介词词组前置倒装
? ? ? ? ? ? ? …at last was there a man who knew his own mind. 终于有了一个了解他心思的人。 In the garden stands an elm tree. 院子里矗立着一棵榆树。 At the top of the hill stood an ancient temple. 小山顶上矗立着一座古庙。 Above the horizon rose the emerging sun with all its shimmering rays. ? 地平线上一轮红日喷薄欲出。

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? 6.3.5形容词词组前置倒装
? ? ? ? ? ? Great was the labor; priceless the road! 工作何其艰辛,道路弥足珍贵! Strange were his behaviors even to his friends! 即使在他的朋友看来,他的行为也十分古怪的。 Peculiar is language to mankind. 语言乃人类所特有。

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? Much more important than his dazzling achievements themselves were his persistent efforts. ? 远比他显赫成就重要得多的是他锲而不舍的努力。 ? Mary and bitter were the thoughts of this wild girl as she sat there in her eternal darkness. ? 这位疯狂的姑娘坐在永恒的黑暗中思绪万千,无限 心酸。

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? ? ? ? ? ? ?

6.3.6名词词组前置倒装 Many a day have I spent in his home. 我在他家先后住过好几天。 Many a time have I visited that scenic spot. 那一风景区我已多次光临。 Many a bitter tear had she shed secretly. 暗地里她不知流过多少伤心之泪。

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? Not a hint did they drop as to how to carry out the plan. ? 关于如何实施计划他们一点口风也不露。 ? Not a single man was killed and only 3 wounded. ? 无一人死亡,只有三人受伤。 ? Not a penny of the money did he spend. ? 那笔钱他一个子儿也没花。

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? 6. 4特殊的倒装结构 特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装结 构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的 需要,把强调部分移到句首,而其它部分顺 序不需要改变,句子主谓不需要倒装。出现 这样的情况有以下几种可能:

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? 1.让步从句的倒装
1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不 是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。 如: Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job. Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight .

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? 2)出现在句型be+主语+其他中。如: While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally true that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.

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? The business of each day __ selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly. [A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it was (答案为B)

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? 3) no matter how (who?);however引导的让步状 语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是 将被强调的内容置于句首。 ? 如: No matter how busy he is , he has to attend the meeting. However cold it is , he always goes swimming.

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? 2.省略if 的非真实条件状语从句中的倒装 当非真实条件从句中的谓语中有were, had或 should,可以将if 省略,并把这几个词分别置于 句首而形成部分倒装或完全倒装:

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? Were it not for (= if it were not for) the expense, I should go to Florida. 要不是费用问题,我早就去弗罗里达了。 Had I taken (=if I had taken) your advice, all this misery might have been avoided. 我如果听了你的话,这一切痛苦或许就避免了。 Should it rain (= if it should rain ) tomorrow, what should we do? 万一明天下雨,我们怎么办?

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? 3.比例状语从句中的主句中的倒装
在以the?,the?引导的比例状语从句中,如果 主句的主语较长,可将谓语动词置于主语之前, 形成完全倒装:

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? The greater resistance a substance has, the less is its conductivity. 物质的电阻越大,其导电率就越小。 The older I grow, the more inclined am I to be lazy. 我年纪越大越想偷懒。

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Exercise Six
1.Hardly __ the helicopter __ when the waiting crowded ran towards it.(1990年6月四级题) A. had …landed B. has… landed C. did… land D. was… landing

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2.We have been told that under no circumstances__ the telephone in the office for personal affairs.(1999年6月四级题) A. may we use B. we may use C. we could use D. did we use

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3. Not until the game had begun __ at the sports ground.(2000年6月四级题) A. had he arrived B. would he have arrived C. did he arrive D. should he have arrived

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4. ___ for the timely investment from the general public ,our company would not be so thriving.(1998年考研题) A. Had it not been B. Were it not C. Be it not D. Should it not be

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5. Hubble’s law states the greater the distance between any two galaxies,__ is their relative speed of separation.(托福题) A. the greatest B. the greater C. greater than D. as great as

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答案
? 1. A ? 译文:直升飞机刚刚着陆,等候的人群就朝它跑 去。 ? hardly/scarcely/barely?when 或 no sooner?than 位于句首所引起的倒装为部分倒装 形式,如果谓语动词为be 的一般现在时或一般过 去时,则为完全倒装。

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? 2. A ? 译文:我们被告知,绝不可用办公室的电话办私 事。 ? In/under no circumstances(无论如何不),by no means(绝不),in no case(无论如何不),in no way(绝不),on no account(绝不可),on no condition(绝不)等短语位于句首时所引起的倒装 句通常为部分倒装,如果谓语动词为be 的一般现 在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒装形式
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? 3. C ? 译文:直到比赛已经开始了他才到达体育场。 ? not until (直到??才),not a(一个??也没 有),not in the least (一点儿也不),not for a minute/moment (一点儿也不)等位于句首时, 通常引起倒装(not a 之后的名词作主语时除 外),其形式通常为部分倒装形式,如果谓语动 词为be 的一般现在时或一般过去时,则为完全倒 装形式。
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? 4. A ? 译文: 要不是当初普通民众的及时投资,我们的 公司不会这么兴旺。 ? 此处考察省略if 的非真实条件状语从句的倒装。

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? 5. B ? 译文:哈勃定律认为,两个星系之间的距离越远, 其相对退行速度就越快。 ? 此处考察比例状语从句的主句中的倒装。

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第七讲 省略问题
? 省去句子中不必要的词语或成分的现象叫 省略,其目的是为了避免重复,使句子简 洁有力。省略可分为两种类型:依靠上下 文的省略和脱离上下文的省略。

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7.1省略的种类
7.1.1依靠上下文的省略: 1)对话中的省略 “Has he come?” “Yes, he has (come).” “他来了吗?” “是的,他来了。” “I have bought a new car?” “When (did you buy it)?” “我买了一辆新车。” “什么时候?”

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2)并列结构中的省略 The boys and (the) girls are behaving rather oddly.

这些男孩和女孩表现得很古怪。 My son won the first race and Jim (won) the second (race). 我儿子赢了第一局,吉姆赢了第二局。

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3)复合句中的省略 I won’t accept their offer, however favorable the conditions (may be). 不论条件多么优惠,我都不会接受他们的报价。 She looked round as if (she was) unsure of where she was. 她打量着四周,仿佛茫然不知身处何处。

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7.2.2 脱离上下文的省略 1)习惯用法的省略,包括祈使句中的省略、某些句 子开头词语等的省略 (You)Wait a minute.等一会儿。 What a lovely view (it is)!景色真美啊! (I am) Sorry; you can’t come in .对不起,你不能 进来。

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2)语法结构所允许的省略,包括介词、连词、不定 式符号to后面部分等的省略 You can’t do it (in) this way . 你可以用这种方法做。 Have you any idea (of) when they will come? 你知道他们什么时候来吗?

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He told me all (that)he knew . 他把所知道的一切都告诉了我。 Martin wanted to swim in the river, but his mother told him not to (swim in the river). 马丁想到河里游泳,但是他母亲叫他别去。

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? 不定式符号to 后面部分的省略范围很广,几乎所 有的此类、各种句子成分都可以被省略。有时,被 省略的可以是多种句子成分,也可以是复合句的主 句或从句 如:

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“Are you going to ask him for help?” (I am) Not (going to ask him for help) if I can help it.” “你要找他帮忙吗?” “能不找就不找。” “When did he leave?” “I don’t know ( when he left).” “他什么时候离开的?” “ 我不知道。”(省略 从句) “What shall I do next?” “(You can do) just as you wish.” “我下一步该做什么?” “随你的便。”(省略 主句)
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7.2 简单句中的省略
7.2.1 省略主语
(I) Beg your pardon.对不起(省略第一人称主语) (You) Come here.(你)过来。(省略第二人称主语) (It) Looks like rain.好像要下雨了。(省略第三人称 主语)

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7.2.2.省略谓语或谓语的一部分
(Does) Anybody want a drink? 有人要饮料吗? Why (are you) in such a hurry? (你) 为什么这么匆忙? Who (comes) next? 该谁了?

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7.2.3 省略主语和谓语或谓语的一部分
(Do you) Understand?

(你) 明白吗? (I am) Glad to meet you . 见到你很高兴。 What a wonderful time( we had)! (我们)玩的多痛快啊!

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7.2.4 省略多种句子成分
“Do you like it?” “ (I do )Not ( like it )at all.” “你喜欢它吗?” “一点也不喜欢。” “He refused our invitation.” “Why( did he refuse it)?” “他没接受我们的邀请,” “为什么?”

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7.3 并列结构中的省略
7.3.1 词语的省略
1)省略名词短语的中心词

A.省略前面名词短语的中心词 B.省略后面名词短语的中心词

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? It is either a French (movie) or an American movie. 它不是法国电影就是美国电影。 ? We have revised fire (regulations) and flood regulations. 我们已经修改了防火和防洪条例。

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? He was against both the first motion and the second (motion). 第一项和第二项提议他都反对。 ? You must clean the windows in this room and (the windows) in that room. 你必须把这个房间和那个房间的窗户擦干净。

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2)省略限定词

The books and (the) magazines don’t belong to him. 这些书籍和杂志不属于他。 I often write to my brothers and (my) sisters. 我经常给我的兄弟姐妹写信。

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3)省略介词

He always drinks tea at breakfast and (at) lunch.
他早饭和午饭总是喝茶。 We heard (about) and read about his adventures. 我们听到并读到过他的种种奇遇。

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4)省略连词 I was very tired, (and) so I went home. 我很累,所以我回家了。(省略并列连词) If you have the right size and (if) the price is reasonable, I will buy it. 如果你有合适的尺寸,价钱也合理,那我就买它。 (省略从属连词)

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5)省略关系词 How should I address a person whom I have not met before , or (whom) I know only slightly? 我应该如何称呼以前没见过的人,或者知之甚少的 人? This is a mathematical problem which seems easy but (which) is actually hard to work out. 这是一道看起来容易,但实际上却很难解的数学题。

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6)省略从句 You can come either before (he arrives) or after he arrives. 你在他到达之前或之后来都行。 I don’t know when (the contest will be held ) and where the contest will be held. 我不知道比赛将在何时何地举行。

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7.3.2 句子成分的省略
1)省略主语

He may see you tomorrow or (he) may call you this evening. 他可能明天去看你,或者可能今天晚上给你电话。 My sister didn’t like it, yet (she) said nothing. 我妹妹不喜欢它,但她什么也没说。

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2)省略谓语和谓语的一部分

Stephen works here and his wife (works) in another company. 斯蒂芬在这里工作,他妻子在另外一家公司工作。 Bobby ought to be praised, and Roy (ought to be) blamed. 博比应该受表扬,而罗伊应该受责备。

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? The worldwide race to develop an affordable synthetic fuel has so far consumed billions of dollars and__ few results.(托福题) A. yielded B. yielding C. yield has D. has a yield of

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? 答案:A

? 译文:在全世界范围内进行的研制一种能够买得起 的合成燃料的竞赛,迄今已耗资数十亿美元,却没 取得什么成果。

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3)省略表语 My father seemed angry, and my mother certainly was (angry) . 我爸爸似乎很生气,我妈妈肯定很生气。 Godwin has recently become (a member of the club), and I always been, a member of the club. 戈德温最近成了该俱乐部的成员,而我一直就是。

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4)省略动词宾语 Bob planned (the house), and Tom built the house.

这所房子是由鲍勃设计、汤姆修建的。 I like (snakes), but my son fears ,snakes. 我喜欢蛇,但我的儿子怕蛇。

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5)省略介词宾语

She drove to (Chicago), but her friends flew back from, Chicago. 她开车去的芝加哥,而她的朋友是乘飞机从那里返 回的。 Some people are bored with (pop music), but I am fond of, pop music. 有些人厌烦流行音乐,但是我喜欢它。

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6)省略定语 A group of young men and (young) women are waiting outside. 一群青年男女正在外面等候。(省略前置定语) Most of the fruits (grown here) and vegetables grown here are exported. 这里生产的大部分水果和蔬菜都用于出口。(省略 后置定语)

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7)省略状语 He lives (in Montreal) and works in Montreal.

他在蒙特利尔生活和工作。 Kitty was born (in 1974), and her parents divorced, in 1974. 基蒂生于1974年,她的父母在当年离了婚。

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8)省略宾语补足语 My nephew likes his son (to be a doctor), but my niece likes her daughter, to be a doctor. 我侄子希望儿子当医生,而我的侄女则希望女儿当 医生。 Becky persuaded me (to accept the compromise), and my wife urged me, to accept the compromise. 贝基劝我接受这个妥协方案,而我的妻子则催促我 这样做。

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9)省略多种句子成分 Connie must have taken the course and (Connie must have ) passed examination. 想必康尼选了这门课,而且考试及格了。 He is easy in conversation and (he is) graceful in manner. 他谈吐从容,举止优雅。

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7.4 复合句中的省略
7.4.1 宾语从句中的省略
1)在以疑问词who, what, which, when, where, how, why等引导的宾语从句中,疑问词后面的部分有时 可以省略 如:

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? Somebody has parked his car here, but I don’t know who (has parked his car here). 有人把车停在这里,但我不知道是谁。 ? You failed again, and I hope you will explain why (you failed again). 你又失败了。我希望你能解释一下为什么。 ? They once visited our farm, but I forget when (they visited our farm). 他们曾经参加过我们的农场,不过我忘了是什么时 候。
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2)引导宾语从句的连词通常可以省略 We all know (that) 2 and 3 are 5. 我们都知道,2加3等于5. I suppose (that) the situation will improve. 我认为情况将会改善。

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3) 在believe, except, guess, hope, imagine, suppose, think等动词后, 宾语从句只保留not Many people think that the situation will deteriorate, but I think not(=I don’t think the situation will deteriorate=I don’t think so). 许多人认为形势会恶化,但是我不这样认为。 “Will it rain today?” “I hope not(=I hope it won’t rain today).” “今天会下雨吗?” “我希望今天别下雨。”

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? 形容词afraid 后面的补语从句也有与hope 相同的用 法 ? “Has he come home yet?” “I’m afraid not(=I’m afraid he has not come home yet).” “他到家了吗?” “恐怕还没有。”

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7.4.2 定语从句中的省略 1)the same ?as 引导的定语从句中的部分内容通
常可以省略
He was about the same age as Philip (was). 他的年龄和菲利普相仿。 You have made the same mistake as (you made) last time. 你犯了和上一次同样的错误。
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2)关系代词的省略
A. Who (m), which 或that 在从句中作动词宾语时可 以省略 The actress (whom/ who/ that) he admired so much died last week. 他崇拜不已的那位女演员上个星期去世了。 The coat (which/ that) I washed yesterday is still wet. 我昨天洗的上衣还是湿的。

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B. Who (m), which或that 在从句中作位于句末的介词

宾语时可以省略 The friend (whom/who/that) I was traveling with is a doctor. 和我一起旅行的那个朋友是一位医生。 Is this the book (which/that) you asked me for? 这是不是你曾经跟我说的那本书?

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C. that 在there be 句型的定语从句中作主 语 时可以省略
This is the only analytical balance (that) there is in the lab. 这是实验室里仅有的一架分析天平。 You may keep the money (that) there is left after buying your hat. 你可以留着买帽子剩的钱。

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D.

that在定语从句中作表语时可以省略

She is not the cheerful woman (that) she used to be. 她已经不是过去那个快乐的女人了。 They don’t seem to be the rare apparatuses (that) they were then. 它们似乎并不是当年那样的珍贵的仪器了。

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E.

that在定语从句中作宾语补足语时可以省 略
I am not the coward (that) you thought me . 我并是你曾认为的那个懦夫。

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7.4.3 状语从句中的省略
1)在时间状语从句中,省略的通常是主语和 be 的某 种形式 She was fond of dancing when (she was) yet a child. 她还是小孩子的时候就喜欢跳舞。 Call him back when (it is ) necessary. 必要时就把他叫回来。

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2)在地点状语从句中,省略的通常是主语和be 的某 种形式 Where (it is ) possible ,all moving parts should be tested. 凡是有可能,所有活动部件都应该检验。 Make changes in the following sentences where (it is) necessary. 根据需要改变下列句子。

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3)在条件状语从句中 A. 省略主语和be 的形式 The information is important, if (it is ) true. 如果属实,这条信息很重要。 If (you are) in trouble, don’t hesitate to call me. 如果有困难,尽管给我打电话。 Glass won’t expand unless (it is) heated. 玻璃不加热就不会膨胀。

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B. 省略谓语的部分

John will come if you will (come). 要是你来,约翰就来。 I’ll pay for the hotel if you (pay) for the food. 如果你付餐费我就付住宿费。

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C. 省略谓语的一部分和宾语

I’ll visit the British Museum if you will (visit it)
too. 如果你也去参观大英博物馆的话,我就去。 D. 省略谓语的一部分和状语 I will do it in this way if you will (do it in this way ). 如果你用这种方法做,我也这样做。

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E. 省略表语

I am happy if you are (happy). 你高兴我就高兴。 D. 从句中只保留not, 而省略其他成分 Go to bed, if not(= if you don’t go to bed), I’ll tell Father. 睡觉去。要不然我就告诉爸爸。

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4)在让步状语从句中 A. 省略主语和be 的某种形式 Though (she was) no swimmer, Louise jumped into the river to save the child. 虽然不会游泳,路易斯仍然跳进河里去救那个孩子。 Although (he was) exhausted, he could not go to sleep. 尽管他筋疲力尽,但却无法入睡。 His opinion, whether (it is) right or wrong, should be considered. 他的意见,不管对不对,都应该考虑。
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B. 省略“情态动词+ be” 或主语和 “情态动词+be”

The bridge must be completed, whatever the cost (may be). 不管费用多高,这座桥必须建成。 An element remains its identity, however finely (it may be) divided.
不论分的多么细,元素仍保持其同一性。

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5)在方式状语从句中 A. 省略主语和be 的某种形式,只保留形容词、介词 短语、不定式、现在分词、过去分词等 Polly slammed the door as though (she was) angry. 波利猛地关上了门,好像很生气。 She looked here and there as if (she was) in search of something. 她这儿看看,那儿看看。 He paused, as if (he was) to let the painful memories pass. 他停下来,似乎要让这些痛苦的记忆过去。
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She locked the cupboard quickly, as if (she was) trying to hide something from us. 她很快把柜子关上,好想要把什么东西藏起来,不 让我们看见。 They did it as (they were) requested. 他们按要求做了这件事。 He fell off his horse as if (he had been) shot. 他从马上落下,好像被射中了。

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B.省略谓语的一部分

He slept heavily as he had (slept) the night before. 和头一天晚上一样,他睡得很沉。 C.省略主语和谓语 As soon as the rain stopped, the sun shone as (it did) before. 雨一停,太阳又照旧光芒四射了。 She opened her lips as if (she was going ) to say something. 她动了动嘴唇,好像要说什么。
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D.省略表语

Shakespeare was the author of Macbeth, as he was (the author) of Julius Caesar. 莎士比亚是《尤里乌斯.凯撒》的作者,也是《麦克 白》的作者。

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6)在比较状语从句中 A. 省略作主语的what You have talked more than (what) is necessary. 你讲得太多了。 To understand the situation completely requires more thought than (what) has been given thus far. 充分了解局势需要更多的关注。 He eats just as much as (what) is good for him. 他吃得总是恰到好处。
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B.省略作宾语的what

They got more than (what) they asked for. 他们得到的比要求的多。 He ate more than (what) he could digest. 他吃了很多,消化不了。

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C. 省略谓语动词

He runs faster than I (run). 他跑得比我快。 Kate is as diligent as you (are). 凯特和你一样勤奋。 There are twice as many stools as (there are) chairs. 凳子比椅子多一倍。

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D. 省略主语和谓语或谓语的一部分

It was not so hot yesterday as (it is) today. 昨天没有今天热。 I know you better than (I know)him. 我了解他,更了解你。 He speaks English as fluently as (he speaks) Chinese. 他的英语说得和汉语一样流利。 Such emotion is more easily conceived than (it is) described. 这样的感情意会容易,言传难。
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E. 省略谓语和宾语

I know you better than he (knows you). 我比他更了解你。 They respect him as much as (they respect) me. 他们对我和他同样尊敬。

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F. 省略主语、谓语和宾语

My sister played the piano better before than (she plays it) now. 我妹妹以前弹钢琴比现在好。 I have met Jessie as often this year as (I met her) last year. 我今年和去年一样经常见到杰西。

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G.省略表语

This is as true of nations as it is (true) of individuals. 个人是这样,国家也是这样。

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H.省略从句

He swims faster than I expect (that he swims). 他游起泳来比我料想得快。

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7)在比例状语从句中,被省略的通常是be 的某种形 式,在其主句也可以出现这种省略 The greater the resistance of a substance (is) ,the less its conductivity is. 物质的电阻愈大,其导电率就愈小。 The brighter the light (is) ,the darker the lens (are). 光线越亮,这些镜片就越暗。

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Exercise Seven
1.Some companies have introduced flexible working time with less emphasis on pressure __ .(1995年6 月六级题) A. than more on efficiency B. and more efficiency C. and more on efficiency D. than efficiency

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2. No matter how frequently __ ,the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.(1995年6 月四级题) A. performing B. performed C. to be performed D. being performed

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3. In no circumstance can more work be got out of a machine than __ .(1994年1月六级题) A. is put into it B. to put it into it C. to be put into it D. that puts into it

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4.These proposals sought to place greater restrictions on the use and copying of digital information than __ in traditional media.(1999年考研题) A. exists B. exist C. existing D. to exist

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答案
? 1.C ? 译文:有些公司采用了灵活的工作时间,较少地 强调压力,而较多地强调效率。

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? 2.B ? 译文:无论贝多芬的作品被多么频繁地演出,总 是吸引着大量的听众。 ? 此处 performed相当于they may be performed.

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? 3.A ? 译文:机器的产出绝不会大于投入。 ? 此处is 前省略了what.

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? 4.A ? 译文:这些建议的目的是,对数字信息的使用和 复制实行比传统媒体更大的限制。

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? 英语否定句是中国人学习英语的一个重点也 是难点 ? 英语否定句的表达方式主要分为两大类: 一是从字面上可以直接看出否定 二是从字面上看不出否定或句中不出现否的, 只否定意义而无否定之形,故称含蓄否定 (是在词里含蓄而间接地表示出否定意义, 即有implied negation)

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? 英语中的否定句分为一般否定句、部分否定 句、全部否定句、半(准)否定句、特指否 定句、延续否定句、多余否定句、双重否定 句、含蓄否定句、排除否定句、形式否定句、 否定转移和强调否定句等十三种形式。

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8.1 一般否定句
一般否定句的构成方式是通过在系动词、助 动词 或情态动词后加否定词not 形成。译成 汉语时,常直接选用“不是” 或 “非”等这 样一些表示否定的词语。 如:

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? This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in, a fact underlined by statistics that show that out of eighty European television networks, no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.(2005年考研真题 Translation 48)
? 参考译文:仅这一点就足以证明在电视行业生存 并非易事。统计数字尤其说明了这一事实,在80 家欧洲电视网中,在1989年出现亏损的不少于 50%。
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8.2 部分否定句
英语中,含有全体意义的代词和副词,如: all, every(及其派生词),both, always, often, entirely, wholly等用于否定式谓语 的句子时,构成部分否定句。 如:

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? All the students are not diligent. 不是所有学生都用功。 ? Both of them cannot swim. 他们两人并非都会游泳。 ? Everything in the school is not good. 并非学校的一切都好。 ? We don’t wholly agree. 我们并不完全同意。

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? 当“not all/not much/not many/not every +名 词中心词”位于句首作主语时,也是部分否 定。译为“不是一切/许多/每一个…… 都……”,或“一切/许多/每一个……不都 是……”。 如:
Not many of the things are of use in form in which they are found. 不是许多东西在它们处于被发现的形态就是有用的。

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? Not all that shift can be attributed to movement out of the snow belt, census officials say, nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too— and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterdays “baby boom” generation reached its child— bearing years.(1998 年考研真题) ? 参考译文:人口普查的官员说,不是所有的这种变 化都归因于积雪带的移动,不停的移民流和更多的 婴儿也起了一定的作用,因为“婴儿潮”的一代人 也到生儿育女的年龄了。
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8.3 全部否定句
英语中,可以由no, not, nor, none, never, neither, nobody, nowhere, nothing, not at all, not in the least, by no means, in no way, none the less, none other than等否定词和短语构成 全部否定句。可以译为“……都不”。 如:

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? Nobody was in the classroom. 教室里空无一人。 ? We have never seen the film before. 我们以前从未看过这个电影。 ? He is by no means rich. 他绝不富有。 ? Neither of them will go boating. 他们俩都不去划船。

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? As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably would not have changed anything.(1999年考研真 题Passage 1) ? 参考译文:尽管人身伤害索赔一如既往,但有些法 庭已开始站在被告一方,特别是在处理那些即便有 警示标识语也改变不了什么的案件中。

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8.4 半否定句(准否定句)
半否定句又称准否定句,表示准否定的词有: few, little, hardly, seldom, scarcely 等, 在表示否定意义时,不像no, not, never等词那么绝对,而是留有余地,语气也 比较弱。

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? I know little Esperanto; I learned it for few weeks. 我不太懂世界语,我没学几个星期。 ? A more suitable place for the gathering can scarcely be found. 几乎找不到更好的聚会的地方。 ? They rarely, if ever, come to work late and leave off early. 他们几乎从不迟到早退。

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? The mergers of telecom companies, such as WorldCom, hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress.(2001年考研真题 Passage4 ) ? 参考译文:像世界电信这类通讯公司的合并似乎不 太可能给消费者带来物价的上涨,也不会导致技术 进步速度的减慢。

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8.5 特指否定句
特指否定句是由非谓语动词的否定式构成的, 即以not to do, not doing 或not done的形式出 现。 如:

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? Even our schools are where we send our children to get a practical education— not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge.(2004年考研 真题Passage 4) ? 参考译文:甚至学校也不过是我们把孩子送去获 得实用教育的地方——而不是为了知识而学知识 的地方。

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8.6 延续否定句
延续否定句指的是前面已经有一个否定句, 后面又追加一个或数个否定句,这种追加的 否定句叫做延续否定句。 如:

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? We don’t retreat, we never have, and never will. 我们不后退,我们从未后退过,将来也决不后退。 ? He can’t fall asleep, neither at night nor in the daytime. 他不能入睡,夜里睡不着,白天也睡不着。

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? The structure of the English sentence is clear to me, to stay nothing of putting it into Chinese. 这个句子的结构我弄不清楚,更谈不上把它译成汉 语了。 ? Even the students found the humor difficult to understand, not to mention the children . 就是大学生也感到这个幽默不好理解,休说那些孩 子们了。

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? For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that comes from or is tested in animals— no meat, no fur, no medicines.(2003年考 研真题Passage 2) ? 参考译文:例如,在最近的一次集市上,一位如慈 祥的老奶奶般的妇女作为动物权利宣传点的工作人 员在散发小册子,鼓励读者不要使用任何来自动物 身上的东西,不要食用动物的肉,不要使用动物的 皮毛,不要用动物作药材。
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8.7 多余否定句
多余否定句指的是按照全句的意思来讲,应用肯定 形式,可却用了否定词not, no等;或按照全句的意 思来讲,应用否定形式,但却出现了两个否定词语。 这种不必要的否定被称为多余否定,含这种否定的 句子被称为多余否定句。 在汉语中也存在这种否定现象,如:好不痛快、好 不热闹等中的“不”就相当于英语多余否定句中的 not.

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? It is a long lane that has no turning. ? 例句解析:这是一句谚语,此处为多余否定。 本句意谓事情必有转机,常用于安慰灰心丧气者等 场合。 ? 参考译文:路长必转弯。

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? It is a wise man that makes no mistakes. (或It is a wise man that never makes mistakes.) ? 参考译文:再聪明的人也会做错事。(与“智者千 虑,必有一失。”意思相当。)

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8.8 双重否定句
双重否定句指的是在一个句子中出现两次否 定的句子。该结构常被译为“没有??就 不??”或“没有??就没有??”。 主要类型:

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? 否定词+含否定词缀(un-, in-, dis-, non-, less等)的词 ? 否定词+ without + 名词(动名词) ? 否定词+否定意义的词(如:keep from, refuse, neglect, forget 等) ? 主句(否定结构)+ 从句(否定结构) ? 否定词+but (but 可作介词,连词,关系代词)

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? He is not incompetent for teaching anthropology. 他不是不能胜任人类学家教学工作。 ? No plant can survive without carbon dioxide. 没有二氧化碳,植物就不能生长。 ? I cannot keep from laughing to hear such a story. 听了这个故事,我禁不住笑了起来。

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? There is no law that has no exception. 凡是规律都有例外。 ? There is no material but will deform more or less under action of force. 任何材料在力的作用下都或多或少地变形。

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? Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they cannot fully participate in our democracy.(2004年考 研真题Text 4) ? 参考译文:没有能力进行批判性思考、维护自己的 观点、并理解他人的观点,他们就不能充分地参与 我们的民主。

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8.9 含蓄否定句
含蓄否定句指的是形式上看不到否定词,但含有一 些特定的词和词组来表示否定的意义,常见的有: free from…, safe from…, protect from…, no more…, but for…, anything but …, instead of…, prevent from …, in place of …, miss, refuse, ignore, overlook, exclude, fail, neglect, absence, failure, refusal, few, free, ignorant, little, far from, short of , otherwise, too…to…, no longer, but , except, off等
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? Silver is too costly to be used for general contacts. 银太贵重,不常用来做一般电器触头。 ? We must take more measures to protect our environment from being polluted. 我们必须采取更多的措施来保护环境,使它免受污 染。

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? Far from increasing the reaction rate, high temperature decreases it. 高温不但没有加快反应速度,反而减慢反应速度。 ? But for air and water, nothing could live. 没有空气和水,什么也活不成。

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? When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.(1997年考研真题翻译) ? 参考译文:这种反应并不错,这是人类用道德观念 进行推理的本能在起作用,这种本能应得到鼓励, 而不应遭到嘲弄。

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8.10 形式否定句
形式否定句是指形式上带有not, never, no, nothing, no one, nobody等否定词,但句子在意 义上是肯定的。翻译这类形式否定句时,一般采取 反译法,就是指原文从正面表达的,译文可以从反 面着笔翻译,如把肯定句译成否定句,或者把否定 句译成肯定句。

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? He is nothing but a scholar. ? 例句解析:这是一个形式否定句。 nothing but 一 般译为“绝对是”。 ? 参考译文:他绝对是一个学者。

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? You can not be too careful when you are driving. ? 例句解析:can not too,意思是:再……也不为过。 ? 参考译文:在你开车的时候,你应该非常小心(再 小心也不为过)。

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8.11 否定转移
否定转移是指否定形式在谓语动词,而否 定的信息焦点却在状语和表语,或否定形式 在主句,而否定的信息焦点却在从句。这是 英语的一种习惯思维方法,与汉语不同,应 予注意。一般分为三类:

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1. Not+ think, believe, suppose, imagine?+ that-clause 在这种句式中,not 从宾语从句的谓语动词前转 移到了主句谓语动词think ,believe, suppose等 前。如: I don’t believe he will come. 我想他是不会来的。

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2. Not …because (of) 这种结构中的not否定的是后面because 引导的从 句或because of 引起的介词短语。也就是说, not 从because (of) 的前面转移到了主句或整个 句子的谓语动词前。如: He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. 他并不只是因为亚里士多德说过某事如何如何, 就轻易相信它。

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3. Not …+ 动词不定式或介词短语

这类结构中,实际上是将否定后面不定式的not 转移到了谓语动词上。如: He didn’t take the boy from the tracks to safety to win his own fame, but to benefit the boy’s parents. 他把男孩从铁轨上抱到安全地带,不是为了获得 个人的名誉,而是为了孩子的父母。

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? 当seem, appear 后面跟否定意义的动词不定式时, 可将否定转移到谓语动词seem, appear上 如: Tom doesn’t seem to like you. 汤姆看来不喜欢你。

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8.12 加强否定句
加强否定句是在否定词之前或之后加上 certainly, simply, possibly等表示强调的 副词构成。常译为汉语中的“只不过??”, “当然不??”等意思。 如:

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? Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its sighs now than formerly.(2000年考 研真题Passage 5) ? 参考译文:当然,现在人们对成功及其标志的兴趣 似乎并未比从前减弱。

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8.13 否定结构的补充
1. not a little 和not a bit

He was not a little surprised at the result. 他对结果很是吃惊。 He was not a bit surprised at the result. 他对结果一点也不吃惊。 (此处not a little = a great deal, extremely;而 not a bit = not at all)

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2. anything but 和 nothing but

That old bridge is anything but safe. 这座旧桥一点儿也不安全。 What I need is nothing but a few day’s rest. 我需要休息几天。 (此处anything but = not at all, far from;而 nothing but = only)

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3. not more than 和no more than

He is not more than ten years old. 他不超过十岁。 He is no more than ten years old. 他只有十岁。 (此处not more than = at most; 而 no more than = only)

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Exercise Eight
? Translation
1. All is not at hand that helps. 2. The seed does not complain because there are stones and turf in way. 3. You cannot see the wood for the trees. 4. That’s not half bad. 5. No rule without an exception.

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6. Our proposal cannot possibly be taken into consideration and adopted. 7. They do not conduct the dangerous experiment to serve their private interest but to benefit man. 8. It is not nearly so easy as you think. 9. Opportunities come to all, but all are not ready for them when they do come. 10.Skill is no burden.

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参考答案
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 有用的东西不一定都在手边。 种子并不因为有石头和草皮挡住它的路而抱怨。 见树不见林。/见小不见大。 那一点儿也不坏。 凡规则皆有例外。

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6. 我们的建议根本不会被考虑与采纳。

他们没有进行这种危险的实验不是为了图私利,而 是为了造福人类。 8. 这远不是像你所想的那么容易。 9. 机会是均等的,人人都有。但是当机会真的来临 时, 并非人人都已做好准备去迎接它。 10.艺多不压身。
7.

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独立主格简介 ? 从功能上来看,独立主格部分在句中作状语, 可以表示原因、条件、结果或伴随状态 ? 从语法角度来看,带有独立主格的句子仍然 是简单句,虽然小句(此处指独立主格部分) 和主句的主语完全不同,但是在小句和主句 之间没有任何关联词。 ? 独立主格结构主要有两种形式,一是含有小 句(小句中有主语和动词的非谓语形式)的 独立主格结构;另一种是with或without后接小 句的形式。
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9.1 clausal 型
小句采用独立主格结构必须满足几个条件: 1)该句的主语与主句的主语不一致; 2)小句和主句都没有连接词来引导; 3)小句和主句之间用逗号隔开; 4)小句和主句存在某种逻辑关系

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1. Absolute

structure, + main sentence

独立主格结构出现在主句之前,用来表示主 句的原因或条件。

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1)cause 表示原因 So many directors being absent, the board meeting had to be put off. 由于很多董事缺席,董事会不得不延期举行。

All flights having been canceled because of the storm, they had to go there by train. 所有的航班因风暴都取消了,他们只好乘火 车去那儿。

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? Alice being used to that kind of life, it’s hard for her to adjust to the change. 爱丽丝习惯了那种生活方式,所以很难适应新的变 化。 ? There being no more questions for discussion, they put an end to the meeting. 因为没有其他问题要讨论,他们结束了会议。

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2)condition 表示条件
? Weather permitting, we will go outing this Sunday. 天气可以的话,我们本周日出去郊游。 ? Time permitting, we will pay a visit to him before we leave. 如果时间允许的话,我们离开之前去看看他。

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? All things considered, the planned trip will have to be called off. 综合考虑后,只有取消旅行计划。 ? The meat cooked in wine, you’ll find it tastes much better. 肉里若放入酒烹调, 你会发现味道好多了。

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2. Main sentence, + absolute structure 独立主格结构也可以放在主句的后面,表示 伴随的状态或结果。

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1)accompaniment 表示伴随
? They stood silently , their eyes fixed on the painting. 他们一动不动地站在那儿,眼睛盯着那幅画。 ? We rowed the boat to the seashore, the fisherman guiding us. 我们把船划向海边,一位渔夫做我们的向导。

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? He sat in front of the desk, his mind wandering. 他坐在书桌前,思绪不知飘向何方。 ? The poor man stood by the window, his hands covered with blood. 这个可怜的家伙站在窗前,手上沾满了血。

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2)result 表示结果
? We left the meeting, there obviously being no point in staying. 我们离开了会场,因为留下来显然没有什么意义了。 ? They returned home late at night, their mother having fallen into sleep. 他们很晚回去,到家时妈妈已经睡着了。

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? The teacher lectured on this boring topic without any emotion, quite a number of students already fast asleep when he finished. 这个老师就这个无聊的话题作讲座时不带任何激情, 等他讲完了很多学生已经睡得很香了。 ? The war lasted 8 years, millions of people killed or wounded. 战争延续了8年,死伤数百万人。

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9.2 Verb form in the absolute structure 独立主格结构中的动词形式

? 独立主格中动词的形式取决于该小句中动词与前面 的主语的关系。 ? 如果主语是动作的实施者,就用现在分词(如 doing) ? 如果主语是动作的承受者,则用过去分词形式(如 done)

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? 如果主语是动作的承受者,且动作正在进行,用被 动语态的进行时(如being done) ? 如果独立主格中的动作发生在主句之前,独立主格 中的动词应用完成体,主动关系用having done, 被 动关系用having been done. ? 独立主格在句中可以有如下几种形式出现:

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1. being done 被动的进行体
? The dictionary being used by sister, I was obliged to ask my classmate for help. 由于妹妹在用我的字典,我只好向同学求助。 ? The water pipe being repaired, we had to eat out. 家里的水管正在修理,我们只好到外面吃饭。

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2. doing 现在分词

? There being not enough water and food, the refugees’ lives were at stake. 由于缺少足够的水和食物,难民们面临生命危险。 ? The man being so nice to her, she feels she doesn’t have the heart to refuse him. 那个男的对她太好了,她觉得不忍心拒绝他。

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3. done 过去分词
? The famous star surrounded by a large crowd, the bodyguards had trouble keeping a distance between him and the fans. 由于一大群人围着这个明星,保镖很难把他和那些 狂热的仰慕者分开。 ? The girl listened to the story silently, her eyes filled with tears. 女孩眼里含着泪水,静静地听完故事。
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? Records sold by millions, Stevie Wonder had become not only a superstar, but “the most admired of his generation”. 史蒂威.旺达专辑销售了成百上千万,它不仅成了一 名超级巨星,而且成为那个时代最受爱戴的歌星。 ? Many slaves traveled under cover of night, their faces caked with white powder. 很多奴隶在黑夜的掩护下出发,他们的脸上涂着白 色粉末。
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4.having done 完成体的主动式
? Mr. Doherty having weighed the advantages and disadvantages, the plan to run a farm was canceled. 多尔蒂先生在权衡了利弊后, 取消了开农场的计划。 ? The police having caught the murderer, the family of the victim felt a little relieved. 警方抓住了凶手,受害者家属感到一丝宽慰。

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5. having been done 完成体的被动式
? A new technique having been worked out, the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent. 使用新的技术后,整个产量增加了20%。 ? The power having been cut, people stepped out of their offices and sat on the stairs of the office building. 断电后, 人们走出办公室,坐在办公楼的台阶上。

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6.adjective phrase 形容词短语
? ? ? ? ? He went to bed, windows wide open. 他窗户大开着,上床了。 She listened to the ghost story, face white terror. 她听鬼故事的时候脸都吓白了。 The shopping-bag lady shivered, hands red with cold. ? 购物袋女郎手冻得发红,哆嗦着。

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7.adverbial phrase 副词短语
? The corpse lay there, face down in a pool of blood. 尸体面朝下倒在血泊中。 ? The burglar stood against the wall for around five minutes, hands up in the air. 小偷两手举在空中,靠着墙站了大约5分钟。

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8. prepositional phrase 介词短语
? The miner crossed through the narrow tunnel, hands in front. 矿工双手放在前面,从狭窄的坑道里爬了出来。 ? She observed the present from the small Oriental country, puzzled expression on her face. 她打量着来自东方小国的这件礼物,脸上露出困惑 的表情。

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9.3 with/without 引导
由with/without 引导的独立主格结构可以放 在主句前或主句后。从结构上来看,这种形 式的独立主格结构基本上是with/without + noun/pronoun+ 其他成分。

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1. adjective phrase 形容词短语
? With Caesar dead, Cleopatra could cherish such hopes no longer. 凯撒死后,克娄巴特拉不再抱着这样的希望了。 ? With crops ripe, the farmers stated to worry about the price. 作物成熟后,农民们开始担忧粮食的价格。

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2. infinitive in active form 不定式的主动形式
? Without me to supplement your income, you wouldn’t be able to manage. 我如果不补贴你,单靠你的收入, 恐怕应付不来。 ? With the volunteers to help them, the old couple will live happily for the rest of their life. 有志愿者的帮助,这对老夫妇会幸福地度过余生。

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? 注意:
? 以上例子用不定式的主动形式是因为 with/without后面的名词是动作的发出者, 且动作尚未发生。

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3. infinitive in passive form 不定式的被动形式
? With the construction plan to be carried out this year, this area will become one of the business centers in the city. 今年建设计划实施以后这一带将成为城市的商业中 心之一。 ? With the questions from the journalists to be answered by the prime minister, the press conference would be closed. 首相回答完记者的提问后,新闻发布会将宣告结束。

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? 注意: ? 以上例子用不定式的被动形式是因为with 后 面的名词是动作的承受者,且动作尚未发生。

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4. passive present participle 现在分词的被动式
? With her regular seat being taken by a young man, she had to go to the last row. 由于她常坐的位子被一个年轻小伙子占了,她只好 走到最后一排。 ? Without his secretary being interrogated by the police, the boss would not answer the incoming phones in person. 要不是老板的秘书正在接受警方的盘问,他不会亲 自接听打进来的电话。

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? 注意: ? 以上例子用现在分词的被动式是因为with后 面的名词是动作的承受者,且动作正在进 行。

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5. past participle 过去分词
? With the walls painted white, the room looks much brighter. 墙壁油漆成白颜色后,房间看起来明亮多了。 ? With the road widened, the traffic is not so heavy as it used to be . 道路拓宽后,交通不再像过去那样拥挤了。

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? 注意: ? 以上例子用过去分词是因为with/without 后 的名词是动作的承受者,且动作已经结束。

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6. prepositional phrase 分词短语
? Without any material possessions in hand, the couple was extremely worried about their daughter’s enormous medical expense. 由于手头几乎没有什么家当,夫妇俩非常担心女儿 巨额的医疗费用。 ? She rushed out of the room, with tears in her eyes. 她眼里含着泪,从房间里冲了出来。

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? 7.present participle 现在分词
? The stations on the New Victoria Line are very busy, with people catching and leaving the train. 新维多利亚线的各个站都很忙,有很多人上下火车。 ? The young man fell asleep quickly, with the certificate of marriage lying under his pillow. 枕头下放着结婚证书,年轻人很快入睡了。

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? 注意: ? 以上例子用现在分词是因为with/without 后 面的名词是动作的发出者,且动作正在进 行或持续中。

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Exercise Nine
1. All flights _____ because of the snow-storm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train. (1999年1月四级题) A. were canceled??? B. having been canceled ?? C. had been canceled? D. have been canceled ??

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2. The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。 A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied

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参考答案
? 1. B ? 2. D
? with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分 词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。 由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因 此用过去分词,选D.

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真题重现
? 【CET-4:2007.12】

? Many Americans live on credit, and their quality of life is measured by how much they can loan(是用他们能够借到多少来 衡量的), not how much they can earn.

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? 【CET-4:2007.12】

? In my sixties, one change I notice is that I

am more likely to get tired than before (我比以前更容易累了)。

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? 【CET-4:2007.6】

? The prevent and treatment of AIDS is a

field where ( in which) we can cooperate. (我们可以合作的领域).

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? 【CET-4:2007.12】

? I am going to pursue this course, no matter

what kind of sacrifice I have to make

(无论我要作出什么样的牺牲)。

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? 【CET-4:2006.12】

? Some psychologists claim that people may

feel lonely when they are away from home.

(出门在外时可能会感到孤独)

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? 【CET-6:2007.12】

? Human behavior is mostly a product of learning, While animal behavior depends mainly on their instinct.(而动物的行为 主要依靠本能)

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? ? ? ? ?

主要考查: 宾语从句 表语从句 定语从句 状语从句

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10.1 名词性从句的种类
名词性从句包括主语从句、表语从句、宾 语从句、介词宾语从句、同位语从句、宾语 补语从句、形容词补语从句

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10.2 主语从句
1. that引导的主语从句 that引导的主语从句可以位于句首,而常见 的形式是将作形式主语用的先行词 it 置于句 首 如:

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? That he is still alive is sheer luck. 他仍然活着完全是运气。 ? That the dog was the first animal to be domesticated is generally agreed upon by authorities in the field. 狗是第一种被驯养的动物,这是该领域里的权威们 一致同意的看法。

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? That the seas are being fished has been known for years.
? 译文:海洋正在被人们过度捕捞,许多年以来这 已是尽人皆知的事情了。 ? That the plates are moving is not beyond dispute. ? 译文:地球板块是在漂移的,这一点毫无争议。

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? That such a conjunction of circumstances might occur again soon,especially considering shrinking US defense budgets and diminishing overseas base access, is problematical at best.
? 译文:至于在近期内能否再次出现这种各个情况 巧合的局面,即使是最乐观的看法也是值得怀疑 的,尤其是考虑到美国国防预算缩减和海外基地 减少的情况。

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? 这句话的语序不是常见的英文惯用语序。按照正 常的英文思维的表达应该是It is problematical at best that…,即先表达态度,再展开叙事。而这句 英文却符合汉语的思维方式,即先叙事后表态。 所以,这句话可以按照原文的顺序翻译成汉语。 但更常见的是it作形式主语置于句首,而将that主 语从句放在句末。因此下面都是常见的主语从句 句型(作文中常用的句型):

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? 一、It+be动词+that 从句
It’s reported that…据报道…… It’s believed that…据信…… It is generally thought that…人们普遍认为…… It should be noted that …应该注意…… It has been found that…现已发现…… It must be pointed out that …必须指出…… 同样可以这样用的动词还有: say,expect,know,estimate,forecast等。比如:

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? As a child —and as an adult as well—Bill Gates was untidy. It has been said that in order to counteract this,Mary drew up weekly clothing plans for him. ? 译文:童年时期,以及即使长大成人后,比尔.盖 茨也不修边幅。据说为了改掉他的这个毛病,玛 丽为他制定了一周着装计划。

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? And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.
? 译文:许多人以为,普通人的思维活动根本无法 与科学家的思维过程相比,这些思维过程必须经 过某种专门训练才能掌握。

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? It is generally agreed that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas readily, make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical symbols in solving problems.

? 人们普年认为,高智商的人有这样的一个特点:
理解能力强、辨别力强、逻辑推理能力强,并且 在解决问题的过程中善于利用文字或数字符号。

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? 二、It+be动词+形容词+that从句 It is clear that…显然…… It is possible that…很可能…… It is likely that…很可能…… It is natural that…很自然…… It is certain that…可以相信…… It is strange that…奇怪的是…… It is fortunate that…幸运的是…… It is necessary that…有必要……
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? Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention.But it’s obvious that a majority of the president’s advisers still don’t take global warming seriously.
? 幸好白宫已经开始注意到全球变暖问题。但是很 显然,总统周围的大多数顾问仍然没有认真对待 该问题。

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? Futhermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country’s economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.
? 再者,很显然,一个国家的经济实力与其工农业 生产效率密切相关,而效率的提高又有赖于各类 科技人员的努力。

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? 三、It+be动词+名词短语+that从句 It is a pity that…可惜的是…… It is a fact that…事实是…… It is good news that… ……真是太好了。 It is a good thing that… ……真是件好事。 It is no wonder that… 难怪…… It is a shame that…遗憾的是……/……真是太不像话了 It is an honor that…真荣幸…… It is common knowledge that… ……是常识。 It is my belief that … 我相信…… It is a miracle that… ……真是奇迹。
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? It is an established fact that factory workers work better, harder,and have fewer accidents when their machines are painted orange rather than black or grey.
? 译文:事实证明,如果把工厂里的机器漆成橘黄 色而不是黑色或灰色,工人就会干得更勤奋、更 出色,事故也会更少。

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? It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.(《傲慢与偏见》“Pride and Prejudice”中的第一句话) ? 译文:一个众所周知的事实是,一个单身汉若是 非常有钱,那么他一定想要找个妻子。

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? 四、It +不及物动词+that从句 It seems that …似乎…… It follows that…因此……/由此可见…… It happens that…碰巧…… It turns out that…结果证明是…… It comes about that…结果是……

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? 五、其他结构
It dawns upon/on sb.that…某人突然想起…… It occurs to sb. that… 某人突然想起…… It makes no difference that… ……无所谓 It doesn’t need to be bothered that…不必担 忧…… It is of little consequence that… ……无关紧要

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? It dawned upon me that there is a logical connection between all the things that happen in that immensely connected body of salted water that covers 71 percent of the surface of the earth. ? 译文:我忽然明白了,覆盖地球表面71%的巨大 盐水体中所发生的一切事情之间都是有联系的。

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? When I decided to quit my full-time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a new international trend.
? 译文:当我决定放弃全职工作的时候,我怎么也 没想到我会成为一个新的国际流行趋势的一部分。

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? __ is the center of our planetary system was a difficult concept to grasp in the Middle Ages.(1993年 6月六级题) A. It is the sun and not the earth B. Being the sun and not the earth C. The sun and not the earth D. That the sun and not the earth

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? 答案: D

? 参考译文:我们所在的行星系的中心是太阳而不是 地球,这在中世纪是一个难以理解的观念。

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2. 疑问词引导的主语从句 疑问词引导的主语从句可以位于句首,也可 以借助于先行词it 后置 如:

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? Why he is absent doesn’t interest me. 我对他为什么缺席不感兴趣。 ? Whether or not an object floats depends on the density of both the object and the water. 一个物体是否会浮起,既取决于该物体的密度,又 取决于水的密度。

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? It was uncertain who was responsible for the accident. 不能确定谁对这次事故负责。 ? It makes no difference where you put the aerial. 你把天线放到哪儿都一样。

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? __ sea turtles find their way back to nesting areas is still a mystery.(托福题) A. How B. Although C. Since D. While

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? 答案:A ? 参考译文:海龟如何找到返回筑巢区的路,这仍是 一个谜。

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3. 名词性关系词引导的主语从句 1)名词性关系代词引导的主语从句
What is most touching in O. Henry’s stories is the bravery with which ordinary people struggle to maintain their dignity . 欧.亨利的小说中最感人的东西是平民为维护尊严而 斗争的勇气。

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? Whatever I have is at your service. 我所有的一切都随你使用。 ? Whoever uprooted that tree ought to be ashamed of themselves. 拔掉那棵树的人应该为自己感到羞耻。 ? Whichever comes in first will receive a prize. 谁先来谁得奖。

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? The world’s greatest sporting event, the Olympic Games, upholds the amateur ideal that __ matters is not winning but participating.(1996年1月六级题) A. anything B. it C. what D. everything

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? 答案:C ? 参考译文:奥运会是全世界最大的体育赛事,它 维护业余运动员的理想:重要的不是获胜,而是 参与。

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2)名词性关系限定词引导的主语从句
What family and friends I still have live abroad.
我所有的家人和朋友都住在国外。 What few friends I have here have been very friendly to me. 我在这里为数不多的几个朋友一直对我很好。

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? He claims to be an expert in astronomy, but in actual fact he is quite ignorant on the subject.__ he knows about it is out of date and inaccurate.(1997年 考研题) A. What little B. So much C. How much D. So little

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? 答案:A ? 参考译文:他声称自己是一名天文学专家,但实 际上他对这门学科一无所知。他所了解的那一点 点东西已经过时了,也不准确。

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? Because引导的主语从句
? 英语中,还有一种比较特殊的主语从句,即由 because引导的主语从句。这种主语从句的结构一 般是“because+陈述句”,置于主语位置,后面 直接加谓语,而且这个谓语往往都是does not mean 。在because前面往往会有just一词,起强调 语气的作用。

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? Just because someone doesn’t love you the way you want them to doesn’t mean they don’t love you with all they have.
? 译文:如果有人没有以你希望的方式去爱你,并 不意味着他们没有全身心地爱你。

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? Something which seems valuable at first may turn out to be worthless.Example:“All that glitters is not gold!”Just because something appears valuble does not mean that it really is valuble.
? 译文:有些东西乍看起来很值钱,但后来却证明 是一文不值。比如,人们常说“闪光的并不都是 金子”。只是看起来很值钱的东西并不意味着真 的很值钱。

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? There is a big difference between activity and accomplishment .Just because you are doing something doesn’t mean you are getting anywhere.One must evaluate one’s activity in order to have accomlishment. ? 译文:工作与成就这两者之间是有很大差距的, 仅仅是在不停地工作并不意味着你就取得了成就。 因此,人们必须认真审视自己眼下的工作,看是 否真的能够取得成就。

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10.3 表语从句
1. That 引导的表语从句 The fact is that both he and his students are exhausted. 实际情况是他和他的学生们都筋疲力尽了。 My impression is that he is in favor of the plan. 我的印象是他赞成这个计划。

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2. 疑问词引导的表语从句

The problem is who is to pay. 问题是谁来付款。 What I am interested in is whether they have been engaged to each other. 我感兴趣的是他们是否订婚了。 What was troubling them was where they could find a guide. 使他们伤脑筋的事情是到哪儿找向导。

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3. 名词性关系词引导的表语从句

1)名词性关系代词引导的表语从句 The place is no longer what it was ten years ago. 这个地方已经不是十年前的样子了。 I am who you are looking for. 我就是你所找的人。

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2)名词性关系副词引导的表语从句
The car is where you parked it . 汽车在你原先停放的地方。 This is why I returned their invitation. 这就是我谢绝他们邀请的理由。

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4.

As if 等引导的表语从句 I felt as though my head were splitting. 我觉得头好像要裂开似的。 The milk smells as if it is sour. 这牛奶闻起来好像酸了。

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除了as if /as though 之外,从属连词as 和because 也可以引导表语从句:
Things are not as they seem to be.

事物并不像它们表面上看起来那样。 It may be because he is too young. 这可能是因为他太年轻了。

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10.4 宾语从句
1. that 引导的宾语从句 1)that 引导的从句作单宾语 The story implies that love cannot be separated from responsibility. 这个故事表明,爱情和责任是不可分的。 Scientists think that losing leaves help some trees to conserve water in the winter. 科学家们认为,落叶有助于树木在冬季保持水分。

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? 以that 引导的从句作单宾语的动词有很多, 常见的有:accept, acknowledge, admit, advise, agree, announce, answer, anticipate, argue, ask, assume, believe, boast, complain, conclude, confess, confirm, consider, decide, declare, deem, demand, demonstrate, deny, emphasize, estimate, imply, insist, judge, maintain, notice, promise等等。

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2)that 引导的从句作双宾语中的直接宾语
She assured me that everything would be all right. 她让我放心,一切都不会有问题。 We persuaded him that it would be best to wait. 我们劝他最好等一下。

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3)that 引导的从句作复合宾语中的实际宾语
这种句型中,先行词it作形式宾语,作宾语补足语 的可以是名词、形容词、不定式、过去分词、介 词短语等。

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? I thought it a false idea that old age brings wisdom. 我觉得年老会令人聪明是一种错误的看法。 ? He has made it clear that he wouldn’t take over the job. 他已经明确表示不愿意接管这项工作。 ? I have heard it said they are getting married. 我已听说他们快结婚了。

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2. 疑问词引导的宾语从句 1)疑问词引导的从句作单宾语 No one can tell what will happen next. 谁也说不出下一步会发生什么情况。 I was wondering whether we could postpone the appointment till the next day. 我不知道我们是否把约会推迟到第二天。

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2)疑问词引导的从句作双宾语中的直接宾语
Nick told me when the contact would be effective. 尼克告诉我合同何时将生效。 Please write me where you got the money. 请写信告诉我你在哪里弄到这笔钱的。

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3)疑问词引导的从句可以在make之后作复合宾语 中的实际宾语。在这种句型中,先行词it 作形式 宾语
He hasn’t made it clear why he had failed. 他没有说清楚自己为什么失败了。

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3.名词性关系词引导的宾语从句 1)名词性关系代词引导的宾语从句 The president is determined to resist what he regards as blackmail by the terrorists. 总统决定抵制他所认为的恐怖分子的敲诈。 I eat whatever I want and I still don’t seem to put on weight. 我想吃什么就吃什么,但似乎仍然没长胖。

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2)名词性关系副词引导的宾语从句 The position of the voice box in the neck determines how an animal breathes and swallows. 喉在颈中的位置决定着动物的呼吸和吞咽的方式。 In this book he explored why dinosaurs become extinct. 在这本书里,他探索了恐龙灭绝的原因。

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3)名词性关系限定词引导的宾语从句

I spent what little time with my family .
我仅有的那一点时间都和家人一起度过了。 Use which method you prefer. 你喜欢哪个方法就用哪个方法。

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10.5 介词宾语从句
1.that 引导的介词宾语从句仅限于用在 except, but等少数介词后 The two books are the same except that this one has an answer key at the back. 除了这本书的后面有问题答案以外,这两本 书完全一样。

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2. 疑问词引导的介词宾语从句 Have you anything of what he is going to discuss with us? 你知道他准备和我们讨论什么吗? There was a debate concerning whether the federal government or individual states should have more power. 曾有过一场关于联邦政府还是各州政府应该拥有更 多权力的争论。

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3. 名词性关系词引导的宾语从句 1)名词性关系代词引导的介词宾语从句

I am sorry for what I have done.
我为自己所做的事情感到惭愧。 The files could be of help to whoever took over the job. 这些档案可能对接管这项工作的人有帮助。

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2)名词性关系副词引导的介词宾语从句
He walked over to where Susan was sitting. 他走到苏珊坐着的地方。 In business, success not only depends on what one says but often on how one says it. 在生意中,成功不仅取决于说话的内容,而且还 取决于说话的方式。

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10.6 同位语从句
1. that 引导的同位语从句 We must face the fact that we have spent all our money. 我们必须面对我们已经把所有的钱都花完了这一事 实。 Your assumption, that things will improve , is groundless. 你设想情况会有好转,这是没有根据的。

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? 与同位语从句同位的名词是一些具有一定内容含义 的抽象名词,常见的有: answer, belief, conclusion, decision, discovery, fact, hint, hope, idea, information, impression, news, report, opinion, order, possibility, problem, promise, question, rumor, sign, statement, truth等。

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2. 疑问词引导的同位语从句 The question, why you are so interested in music, has not been answered yet. 你还没有回答“你为什么对音乐这么感兴趣?”这 个问题。 My problem — that is ,whether I should invite him — was solved when I received news of his illness. 我的问题—— 我是否应该邀请他—— 在我得到他 生病的消息后就解决了。

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3. 名词性关系词引导的同位语从句 Students like the accumulation of facts— that is, what is known. 学生们喜欢积累论据,也就是已知的东西。 Fame and fortune — what others sought after with zest — was all rubbish to him. 名利—— 别人热心追求的东西—— 对他来说皆如 粪土。

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10.7 宾语补语从句
1. 名词性关系词引导的宾语补语从句 He has made the company what it is today. 他使公司成为现在的样子。 You can call me what (ever) you like. 你喜欢叫我什么就叫我什么。 I named my son what my father named me . 我用我父亲给我起的名字给我儿子起名。

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? 在call, make, name 等几个动词后可以跟由 名词性关系代词what 和 whatever引导的宾 语补语从句。

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2. As引导的宾语补语从句
I found him as I had left him.
我发现他还是我离开时的样子。 Leave the children as they are. 不要去管孩子们。 Let’s keep it as it is. 咱们让它保持原样吧。

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? 在find, keep , leave 等几个动词后可以跟由 从属连词as 引导的宾语补语从句。

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10.8 形容词补语从句
1. that 引导的形容词补语从句 I was afraid that I might hurt his feelings. 我担心会伤了他的感情。 They became increasingly aware that women were not granted the same rights as men. 他们越来越意识到妇女并没有被赋予和男子同样的 全利。 We are confident that next year’s profits will be much higher. 我们确信明年的利润额会高得多。
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? 跟由that 引导的补语从句的常见形容词有: afraid, alarmed, amazed, annoyed, astonished, aware, careful ,certain, confident, depressed, disappointed, hopeful等

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2. 疑问词引导的形容词补语从句 He was too sleepy to be aware how cold it was.

他太瞌睡了, 没意识到天气有多冷。 I am doubtful whether she will agree to this. 我不能肯定她是否会同意这一点。

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? 1.9 从句的“嵌套结构” ? 在一个复杂句子当中可能会同时含有多个名 词从句,我们称之为名词从句的“嵌套结 构”。 ? 也可以是名词从句与定语从句或状语从句构 成保护或被保护的关系,从而形成“嵌套结 构”。这样都会使句子变得更复杂,遇到时 要仔细分析句子结构,方能理解句子的意思。 ? 如何快速理清句子结构,我们提出了“连词 与动词配比原则”
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? 1.9.1 名词从句的“嵌套结构”

? 所谓名词从句的“嵌套结构”,即指多个名 词从句之间存在的包含与被包含的关系。 ? 如:

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? I realized that what I said was not exactly what I meant to say. ? 评析:在that 引导的宾语从句中同时含有what引 导的主语从句what I said和what 引导的表语从句。 ? 译文:我后来意识到,当时所说的话并非是我真 正想说的。

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? The question is how what you have learned can be put into practice. ? 评析:在how引导的表语从句中含有what引导的 主语从句what you have learned。How引导的从 句的谓语是can be put into practice,而what 引导 的从句谓语是have learned。 ? 译文:问题是,你所学到的知识如何才能应用于 实践。

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? Prof. Lee’s book will show you ____can be used in other contexts. A. that you have observed B. that how you have observed C. how that you have observed D. how what you have observed

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? 答案:D ? 评析:此句类似上面例子的结构,都是how引导的 从句嵌套了一个又what 引导的主语从句。所不同的 是,上一例句的how引导的从句是一个表语从句, 这里的how引导的从句是宾语从句,作show的直接 宾语。 ? 译文:李教授的这本书能够让你知道如何把观察到 的东西应用到其他场景中。

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? 1.9.2 连词与动词的配比原则
? 在英语中,有N个谓语动词,就会对应有N-1个谓语 动词,就会对应N-1个连词以及N-1对应的从句
? 也就是说,在英语句子中,谓语动词的个数一定是 多于连词个数的,通常是多出一个,因为这一个多 出的动词就是主句的谓语动词。 ? 如:

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? That the seas are being overfished has been known for years.What researchers such as Ransom Myers and Boris Worn have shown is just how fast things are changing.

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? 图解
That the seas are being overfished Has been known for years 主语从句。其中that引导的从 句的谓语动词是are being overfished 主句的谓语

主语从句。其中what 引导的 What researchers such as Ransom Myers and Boris Worn 从句的谓语动词是have shown have shown Is(just) How fast things are changing
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主句的谓语 表语从句。其中how引导的从 句的谓语动词是are changing

? 译文:海洋正在被人们过度捕捞,许多年 以来这已是尽人皆知的事实了。研究人员 (如Ransom Myers and Boris Worn )所揭示的仅 仅是情况变化得多么迅速。

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? 当然,这种名词从句的“嵌套结构”里面还 可以带有定语从句或者状语从句,这样就形 成了三大从句的“嵌套结构”。 ? 如

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? No one is in the least interest in the marks a little child gets on his test; what we are interested in is whether we can conclude from his mark on the test that the child will do better or worse than other children of his age at tasks which we think require “general intelligence”.

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? 图解
what we are interested in 主语从句

is

主句的谓语

whether we can conclude from his mark on thetest 表语从句中的主谓状结构 表语从句 that the child will do better or worse than other children of his age at tasks which we think require “general intelligence”. 表语从句中的宾语从句

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? 宾语从句的结构图示
That the child will do better or worse Than other children of his age 宾语从句的主 谓状结构 插入比较结构, 分割了better 与at 的搭配

at tasks 中心词tasks Which 引导定语从句,修饰tasks We think 插入语 Require(“general intelligence”)定语从句的 谓语部分 3/20/2014

介词短语,其 中at与上面 better or worse 构成语义搭配

? 译文:我们对孩子们在考试中取得的分数并不感 兴趣,我们所感兴趣的是我们是否能够从他们的 考试分数中作出判断:这个孩子在我们认为需要 “一般智商”的练习任务中的表现将会好于或差 于其他同龄孩子。

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Exercise Ten
1. He claims to be an expert in astronomy, but he is quite ignorant on the subject. ___ he knows about it is out of date and inaccurate.(1997年考 研题) A. What little B. So much C. How much D. So little

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2. Output is now six times __ it was before 1990. (1995年1月六级题) A. that B. what C. that which D. of that

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3. When I try to understand __ that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might except, it seems to be that there are two causes.(1998年1月四级题) A. why it does B. what it does C. what it is D. why it is

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4. Many principles of jet propulsion apply regardless of __ air or water is the fluid used. A. what B. that C. whether D. either

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参考答案
? 1. A
? 参考译文:他声称自己是一名天文学专家,但
实际上他对这门学科一无所知。他所了解的那一 点点东西已经过时了,也不准确。

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? 2. B ? 参考译文:现在的产量是1990年之前的6倍。

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? 3. C
? 参考译文:是什么妨碍着这么多美国人不像人们 所想象的那么幸福,当我设法弄懂这个问题时, 发现似乎存在两个原因。

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? 4. C
? 参考译文:不论所使用的流体是空气还是水,喷 射推进的许多原则都是适用的。

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