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高中英语语法复习专题(2)冠词


?一、考点聚焦 1.不用冠词的情况 (1)专有名词、 物质名词、抽象名词、人名、地名等名词前,一般不加冠词。 China , America, Smith Air is matter. (2)可数名词前有物主代词、指示代词、名词所有格等限制时,不加冠词。 This dictionary is mine. (3)季节、月份、星期、节日、假日、一日三餐名称前一般不加冠词。 March, May Day, National Day, Children’s Day, Women’s Day Have you had supper? Spring is the best season of the year. (4)称呼语或指家用雇用的 nurse、cook 等名词前及表示头衔职务的名词作宾语、补语及同位语时, 一般不加冠词。 What’s this, Father? We made him our chairman. Professor Li.

Ask nurse to put the child to bed.

(5)学科名称、球类、棋类名称前不加冠词。 Do you study physics? He likes playing football/chess.

(7)在与 by 连用的交通工具名称前不加冠词。 by car, by bus,by bike, by train, by air/ water/ land 但:take a bus, come in a boat, on the train/ bus 需注意。 (8)某些固定词组中不用冠词。 ①名词词组中: husband and wife, brother and sister, body and soul, day and night, knife and fork ②介词词组中: to(at, from) school, in (to)class, in (to,at, from)university(college),to(in, into, from) church, to(in,into, out of)prison(hospital, bed), to(at, from, out of)work, to(in, from) town,at (from)home, to(at)sea, at night( noon, midnight), by car (bus, bicycle, plane), on foot 注意:在有些词组中,有无冠词含义不同。 in hospital 住院(因病)
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in the hospital 在医院(工作、参观等) in front of 在前面,指某物体之外 in the front of 在前部,指某物之内 in charge 负责,主管 in the charge 由……负责 out of question 没问题 out of the question 不可能

(9)as 引导的让步状语从句中,作表语的名词不带冠词。 Child as she is, she knows a lot of French. (10)系动词 turn(作“变成”解)后作表语的单数可数名词前习惯不用冠词。 The young girl has turned writer. = The young girl has become a writer. (11)在单数名词 + after + 同一单数名词(表示“一个接一个” )结构中,单数可数名词前不加冠 词。 She did experiment after experiment. 类似的还有:shop after shop, mistake after mistake (12)形容词的最高级前、序数词前也有不用定冠词的情况。 ①“most + 形容词原级”作“十分、非常、极”解时,前面不用定冠词。 Oh, it’s most beautiful. ②当两个形容词最高级并列修饰同一个名词时,第二个形容词前通常不用定冠词。 She is the tallest and fattest girl in our school. ③当形容词最高级作表语,不表示与其他人或物相比时,其前不用定冠词。 The market in the country is busiest in winter. ④形容词最高级前有名词所有格或物主代词时,不能用定冠词。 A wolf in a sheep’s skin is our most dangerous enemy. ⑤序数词前面一般加定冠词表示“第……”之意,但在 second、third 等词前加不定冠词表示“又一, 再一”之意。 …why you took a second arrow 注意:下句中“a first”表示“第一名、冠军” 。 He is a top student in our class, he often gets a first in maths. (13)no 与 such 连用时应放在 such 之前,such 后面的名词不用冠词。 No such thing has ever happened in this village. (14)never、ever 置于作主语的名词前,这些名词前不用冠词。 Never did student study so hard.这个学生从未学得这么认真。 (15)有时为了节省空间、时间、金钱和精力,或为了引起注意力,省去 a(n)或 the,这主要用于新
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闻标题、工商业文件、广告、电报、公告、提纲、书名等。 Conference opens.会议召开了。 2.定冠词的使用情况 (1)使用定冠词的一般情况。 ①特指或第二次提到。 ②序数词前、最高级前、独一无二的东西前。 ③用于表示发明物的单数名词前或某些专有名词前。 (2)定冠词使用特殊的场合。 ① He hit him in the face. beat sb. on the nose, take sb. by the arm, pat sb. on the head② the rich, the poor, the wounded 富人,穷人,伤员 ③ the elder of the two, he more beautiful of the two 两者中较年长的一位,较漂亮的一个 ④ The sooner, the better.越快越好。 ⑤ He got paid by the hour.他是按小时付工钱的。 by the yard/the dozen/the month/the year… 但:by weight 按重量 ⑥ i n the 50s /in the 1870s(表示年代) ⑦ the Smiths/the Whites(表示一家人或夫妇俩) ⑧ in the water/field/light/shade/distance/middle/country/ rain ⑨ tell the truth/on the other hand/on the way home ⑩ 当抽象名词表示某一特定内容,特别是当它有一限定性修饰语时, 它与定冠词连用: She is fond of music. He is playing the music written by Beethoven. Good advice is beyond price. I’m sorry not to have taken the advice he gave. 3.不定冠词常用的几种情况 (1)表示“一”相当于“one” 。I’ll return in a day or two. (2)表示“每”相当于“per” 。We have three meals a day. (3)表示“同一性”相当于“the same” 。The children are of an age. (4)表示类指,表示“某类” 。He wants to he a doctor. (5)表示泛指,相当于“any” 。A horse is a useful animal.
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(6)表示某一个,相当于“a certain” 。A Mr. Smith is asking to see you. (7)与抽象名词连用,可以表示“一场、一次、一件” ,如:a pleasure 一件乐事,a surprise 一 件令人惊讶的事,a joy 一件高兴的事,a pity 一件遗憾的事,an honour 一个(件)经以为荣的人(事)。 (8)与物质名词连用,表示“一种,一阵、一份” 。 What a heavy rain! What a good supp er! Please give me a black coffee!

(2)不定冠词 + 单数可数名词(表示任意一个,某一个) 。 A pen is a tool for writing. A square has four sides. A horse is a useful animal. 注意:man, woman 表示泛指时,不用冠词,且常用 单数。如: Man is fighting a battle against pollution. Man tries to be the protector of woman. (3)可数名词或不可数名词,指类别(考虑到同类中的各个情况) 。 Horses are useful animals. Rice is a kind of food. 5.冠词位置问题 (1)不定冠词 + 副词 + 形容词 + 名词。 This is a ver y interesting story. (2)such、what、both、all、quite、rather +不定冠词+形容词+名词。 I’ve never seen such a film! Half a pound of pork,please! What a good idea it is! (3)as、so、too、how、however、enough+形容词+不定冠词+名词。 It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. I can’t finish the task in so short a time. This seems not too long a distance. We wonder how difficult a problem he worked out.
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However low te price you paid,you waste your money. He is brave enough a hunter to kill the bear. (4)定冠词位置。 ①half、twice、three times + the + 名词 He paid twice the price for it. Their house is three times the size of yours. ②all、both、double + the + 名词 Both the blind men were mistaken. All the students in our class are eager to know the secret. I offered him double the amount, but he still refused. ?二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1.The warmth of ____________sweater will of course be determined by the sort of

___________wool used.(NMET 2001) A.The ; the B.the ; / C./; the D./; /

解析:答案为 B。第一空格为特指,交待 the warmth 的内容,第二空格为泛指,the sort of wool used 所用羊毛的种类。此题有三点需注意:①正确理解 sweater 这一句词在句中的类别。②掌握 determine 在句中作“决定” 、 “取决于”这个意思。③掌握定冠词表特指的基本用法。 2.Most animals have little connection with_________animals of___________different kind unless they kill them for food.(NMET 2000) A.the … a B./ … a C.the … the D./ … the

解析:答案为 B。名词复数表类别,其前不用冠词,故第一个空格不填冠词,表不定概念的“一种” , “某种”要用不定冠词 a。要准确掌握冠词表类别的三种表达方式和不定冠词常用的几种情况,见前面要 点考点聚 焦内容。 3.Paper money was in___________use in China when Marco Polo visited the country in __________thirteenth century.(NMET1999) A.the … / B.the … the C./ … the D./ … /

解析:答案为 C。题中 in use 是固定搭配,意为“在使用” ,use 为抽象名词,其前不用冠词。后者 是序数词前用定冠词 the。要牢记一些固定搭配如 in use、under construction(在建设中) 、in debt (欠债) 、come to power(执政) 、on f ire(着火) 、at table(用餐) 、out of work(失业)等。 4.When you come here for your holiday next time don’t go to bed in my flat.
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hotel; I can find you

A. the; a

B. the; 不填

C. a; the

D. a; 不填

解析:答案为 C。考定语从句。主句部分应是 The English play at the New Year’s party was a great success. 从句补全为独立句子就是 my students acted in the play.所以应选 in which,其余介词不妥。 5.—John, there is —I’m in A. a; the bath. B. the; a C. a; 不填 D. the; 不填 Mr. Wilson on the phone for you.

解析:答案为 A。本题考查冠词用法。a+姓名,表示“一个叫……的人” ;in the bath 在浴室。 6. Tom owns larger collection of C. a; the books than any other student in our class. D. 不填; the

A. the; 不填 B. a; 不填

解析:答案为 B。考冠词,collection 是可数名词,须填冠词,被比较级修饰,但是大范围的比较, 故填不定冠词,后一空是泛指的表类别的书,且已用了复数,不填冠词。故选 B。

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