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考研英语易混淆词汇比较记忆


考研英语易混淆词汇比较记忆( 考研英语易混淆词汇比较记忆(一)
很多考研词汇是来自于拉丁语, 而掌握这些单词可以借助词根和 词缀,从而会事半功倍.如此种种,不一而足. 更重要的一

点是很多同学只知认词,不知辨词.知道一个单词的词义是不够 的,考生还应该知道这个词与其它词,尤其是同义词和近义词的 区别.而这些容易混淆的单词往往是考点所在,也是考生的难以 掌握的地方.有时同义词间的区别非常的细小,甚至可能完全取 决于英美人的语言习惯.而且,英语中的同义词相当丰富,两个 或两个以上的词在某个语境中可以构成同义词, 但在另一语境中 却不构成同义的词群.因此同义词的记忆比较困难.而准确使用 同义词,近义词能避免文章的枯燥和累赘;另一方面,各类英语 考试包括硕士研究生英语入学考试大多要求考生能辨析同义词, 近义词的细小差别,正确指出它们在语言表达,使用场合方面的 不同.如果孤立地,单个地进行记忆,必然缺乏系统, 事倍功半. 而同义联想的方法,即通过收集和整理同义词,将它们放在一起 集中记忆,可以大大提高记忆的速度和效果.其实,英语中两个 意思绝对相同的单词是很难找到的, 所谓的同义词实际上就是近 义词而已, 一个或几个同义词在意义或文体方面总会有不同程度 的差异,如果平时学习词汇时认真辨析这些词,体会它们的细微 差别,考试的时候就会有备而来,信心十足. 鉴于上述分

析, 我总结了复习当中出现的近义词, 易混淆词供考生反复记忆, 使大家免去了费时费力又不得要领的查找之苦, 从而节约了宝贵
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的复习时间.使用这套词汇辨析的同学,应该是那些已经对于考 研词汇学习过至少一遍, 又期待进一步针对考试而掌握重点考词 的同学.鉴于做题也是巩固所学词汇的不可忽略的重要组成部 分,尽管自 2002 年起,词汇已经不作为一个单独的部分出现在 试卷中,还是摘录了 8 套考研词汇题,希望同学们在做题过程中 巩固所学词汇,辨析易混词汇,并进一步体会出题思路. abide, adhere, conform, comply 这四个研究生入学考试中的高频考词都有"遵守"的意思, 但是它们的搭配不同. abide v.后接 by 表示"遵守,同意". I will abide by the director' decision.我将遵从主任 的决定. adhere v.后接 to 表示"遵守".(当然 adhere 一词的其它 意思如"坚持;粘附"也经常被考到.) Car drivers must adhere to the rules of driving.汽车 司机必须遵守驾驶规则. conform v.后接 to 表示"遵守,符合". All individuals are required to conform to the laws made by their governments.每个人都应该遵守政府制订的法 律.

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comply v.后接 with 表示"遵守, 服从", 用于正式的场合. Our company complies with governmental regulations on paying taxes.我们公司遵守政府有关纳税的规定. abnormal, uncommon, disordered 这三个单词都有"反常的"之意, 在考研和 CET-6 当中经常 让考生们辨析它们的细微差别. abnormal a.不正常的,反常的(但并非罕见),指行为或现 象(如气候)的异常. His body temperature has been abnormal for 3 days, the highest point reaching 40.5 degree centigrade.他的体温三 天来一直都不正常,最高的时候达到 40.5 摄氏度.(尽管身体发 烧不正常,但生活中也时有发生.) uncommon a.罕见的,不平常的,指很少经历或很少见到的 状况;特别的,出色的. Hurricanes are uncommon in England.飓风在英国非常罕 见. That is uncommon instant coffee; it tastes great!那 速溶咖啡质量上乘,味道好极了! disordered a.混乱的,杂乱的;(精神或身体)有病的. We couldn't understand her disordered presentation. 我们听不明白她条理不清的陈述.

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abolish, cancel, eliminate, dispose, erase, exclude, extinguish 这一组动词都有"取消,除掉"的意思. abolish v.指对法律,习俗,制度的废除;完全破坏. The government abolished the tax on alcohol.政府取消 了酒税. cancel v.对预先安排的某种活动(如旅行,计划,会议等) 的取消;删去(字,句). The meeting has been cancelled because of the flu. 会议由于流感而取消了. eliminate v.指消除,淘汰已经存在但是现在不需要的东 西. The losing team was eliminated from further competition.失利的那个队被淘汰了,不能参加下一阶段的比 赛. The doctor helped him eliminate toxins from the intestine.医生帮助他排出肠中毒素. dispose v.处理,处置;表示"除掉,扔掉"时常与 of 连 用.(这一点需要注意.) After your picnic, please dispose of the litter.野餐 后请清除掉垃圾.

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erase v.除去,擦掉,指有意识地除去字迹,声音等. I erased the music on the tape before recording on the tape again.我在往磁带上录音之前先消掉了上面的音乐. exclude v.排斥;排除,不包括在内,与 include 互为反义 词. The restaurant excludes anyone who is not properly dressed from entering.衣冠不整者不得进入该餐馆. extinguish v.熄灭,扑灭(火);使沉默,使暗淡. Firefighters extinguished a big fire.消防队员扑灭了 大火. abstract, digest, outline, summary 这一组名词都有"要点,摘要"的意思. abstract n.概要,摘要,尤其指对学术论文或法律论据作 的简述. I have read the abstract of his book.我已经读了他的 书的概要. digest n. (篇幅较长的)摘要,文摘,它是对原文的浓缩而 不是对原文的简单解释, 浓缩后仍保持原文的顺序, 重点和风格. Reader's Digest《读者文摘》 outline n.要点,大纲,概要. She made an outline of ideas she wanted to present in her talk.她把自己要谈的想法列了一个提纲.
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summary n.总结,摘要,指用寥寥数语概括文章或者讲话的 要点,不考虑原文的风格. absurd, ridiculous, silly 这一组形容词都有"愚蠢,可笑"的意思. absurd a.荒谬的,可笑的,指因不符合常识,违反真理或 不合逻辑而令人发笑. There was an absurd idea that the earth was flat and motionless.过去曾经有一种荒谬的观点认为地球呈扁平状而且 静止不动. ridiculous a.荒唐可笑的,指因为愚昧无知而令人发笑并 成为笑柄,含有蔑视成分. It is ridiculous to judge a foreign culture only by its food.仅仅根据一个国家的饮食来评价该国家的文化是荒唐可笑 的. silly a.愚蠢的,傻的,指由于单纯或者头脑简单而显得愚 蠢. a silly little boy 傻小子 abundant, plentiful 这两个形容词都有"充足的"之意. abundant a. (数量)充足的,常用于人,物产,资源,雨量 等,含有"过多"之意.

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Oil is in abundant supply in this country.这个国家石 油供应十分充裕. plentiful a.丰富的,充足的,常用于食物,收获,财产等, 不能用于时间,空间,思想等方面. Eggs are plentiful at this moment.现在鸡蛋很多. accent, tone, dialect 这三个名词意思相近,容易混淆. accent n.口音,指某一地区语言的发音特征;重音. He speaks English with a Spanish accent.他讲英语带有 西班牙口音. tone n.语气,音调,指说话人的口气或声音的高低,轻重 等. He speaks to his baby in soft tones.他用柔和的语调和 他的婴儿说话. dialect n.方言,土语,地方话,指一个地区人们所使用的 语言. the Yorkshire dialect 约克郡方言 the Sichuan dialect 四川方言 access, assess 这两个词为一组"形近易混词". access n.接近,进入. The people living in these apartments have free access
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to that swimming pool.住在这些公寓里的人可以免费地进入游 泳池. assess v.评估(财产,价值). I assessed how much it would cost to build a new apartment.我评估了一下建一套新的公寓要多少钱. accommodate, afford, furnish 这一组动词都有"提供"的意思. accommodate v.提供住宿,房间;适应,迎合,迁就. This hotel can accommodate up to 500 guests.这家饭店 可供 500 位来宾住宿. The company accommodated the customer's wish and sent the delivery overnight.公司满足了顾客的愿望,连夜将货物 发了出去. afford v.负担,支付;当"提供"讲时,多用于指抽象事 物的提供. We can't afford that expensive sports car.我们买不起 那辆昂贵的跑车. The tall building affords a beautiful view of the ocean. 从这幢高楼上可以看到大海的美丽景致. furnish v.指提供生活或某种用途所需要的东西. Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge, it is thinking that makes what we read ours.
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阅读虽然为我们的思想提供了各种知识, 然而只有思考才能将我 们读到的内容变成自己的东西. accomplishment, attainment, achievement 这三个名词都有"成就"的意思. accomplishment n.成功,成就;才艺,修养. Climbing that high mountain was an accomplishment for the hikers.对于登山运动员来说,爬上了那座山就是成功. Being able to paint well is just one of her accomplishments.画画得好只是她的许多才能之一. attainment n.指学识和造诣(常用作复数);达到,到达. a scholar of the highest attainments 造诣极高的学者 achievement n.可指抽象的"成就",或具体的"成绩", 与 accomplishment 是同义词. accuse, charge 两个动词都有"控诉,指控"之意,但它们后面所搭配的介 词不同. accuse v.指控,控诉,与介词 of 连用. The police accused him of theft.警察指控他犯有盗窃罪. charge v.可以指因为小错而受的责备,也指因违法而受到 控告,与介词 with 连用. The police charged him with murder.警察指控他犯了谋 杀罪.
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(二) acquire, attain, obtain, gain, earn, achieve, secure 这一组动词都有"获得,取得"的意思,在考研和 CET-6 当中 屡次出现它们之间的辨析. acquire v.多指经过努力逐步获得才能,知识,习惯等,也 可用于对财物等的获得, 该词强调"一经获得就会长期持有"的含 义. It is through learning that the individual acquires many habitual ways of reacting to situations.正是通过学 习,个人才得以获得应付各种情况的习惯做法. attain v.指经过不懈的努力获得未曾预料到的结果;也可 指达到某一目标. The salesperson attained his sales goal for the month. 这名销售员完成了当月的销售目标. obtain v.获得,买到,用于正式语体中. He obtained the property with a bank loan.他通过向银 行贷款买下了那份房产. gain v.指通过较大努力获得某种利益或好处;亦可指军事 上的武力夺取等. An investor gains by buying stocks that go up in value. 投资者通过所买股票价格上涨而得利润.
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earn v.挣得,赢得,指因工作等而得到报酬或待遇. How much do you earn a week?你一星期挣多少钱? achieve v.得到,获得,多指成就,目标,幸福的取得. The movie star achieved success and wealth.这个影星 取得了成功和财富. secure v.得到;把……拿到手,含有肯定占有难以得到的 东西之意;使安全,保卫;作形容词比较常见,意为"安全的". A million signatures have been secured.已征集到了 100 万人的签名. He secured the office before leaving it for the night. 他晚上离开前锁好了办公室的门窗. acute, critical, crucial, urgent 这一组形容词都有"严重的,重要的"意思. acute a.剧烈的,严重的;急性的(病). An acute lack of food brought hunger to the Iraqi people. 食品严重缺乏,伊拉克人民正在忍饥挨饿. critical a.意为"关键的",表示处于极度缺乏的状态或事 件的转折点,与 crucial 相似. 与 crucial 的区别在于它对缺乏的或危急的程度有更准确 的衡量;还指"批判性的,分析性的". It is critical that you study hard for the exam or you will fail it.为了考好你必须用功学习,则你会不及格的.
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crucial a.意为"决定性的,紧要关头的,至关重要的",最 为笼统,适用于上述两种情况. Improved consumer confidence is crucial to an economic recovery.消费者信心的增强对经济的复苏是至关重要的. urgent a.意为"紧迫的,急迫的,紧要的",它不强调所指 的问题是最重要的,仅强调"紧急的"状态. We have an urgent need for help; we are running out of water.我们急需要帮助,我们的水就快要用光了. adjust, regulate, rectify, amend, convert, alter, modify, transform, vary 这九个动词都含有"调整,改变"的意思. adjust v.一般指很小的改变或技术性的调整;修理. I adjusted the air conditioner to stay cool.我调节了 空调以保持凉爽. regulate v.指根据规定或需要对某物

(机器,钟表等)进行调整或调节,使之准确工作或运行;多含有 "控制"之意. Lights are used to regulate the traffic.红绿灯被用来 管制交通. rectify v.纠正,校正(错误,文章,合同等). He rectified the mistake in the contract by changing its wording.他通过改变措辞纠正了合同里的错误.

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amend v. (正式用语)指修改文件,法律,规范等. The politicians amended the law to provide more jobs. 政治家们修正了这项法律以提供更多的就业. convert v.改变某事物的形式或用途,还可以指改变信仰尤 其是宗教信仰. Britain converted to a decimal currency system in 1971. 英国于 1971 年改用十进制货币体系. He's converted to Catholicism.他已经皈依天主教. alter v.使事物在外观,性质,用途等方面稍作改变. The tailor altered the waistband on my pants because it was too tight.裁缝修改了我的裤腰因为它太紧了. modify v.改变,修改,以使某物更趋完善,还可以用来表 示态度,脾气,意见变得温和. He was loud and angry, and his friends told him to modify his behavior.他粗声大气,脾气暴躁;朋友们告诉他要 改变自己的举止. transform v.指彻底,深远的改变,这种变化完全改变了外 观或特性,使被改变的对象脱胎换骨. Remodeling transformed an old, dark housesintosa cheerful one.重新装修使这所陈旧昏暗的房子变得赏心悦目.

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vary v.强调没有一定规则,陆续的变化或差异. Air fares vary from one airline to another.航空公司 的机票价格各不相同. admit, confess, concede 这几个动词都有"承认"的意思. admit v.指由于说服,再三追问而"承认"某一事实或过错. I admit that you have a point.我承认你有理. confess v.供认(罪行,过错等),含有"坦白,招认"的意思. He confessed his crimes to the judge.他向法官供认了 他的罪行. concede v.指曾想隐瞒或不愿意承认某一错误,但由于证据 确凿而不得不勉强承认,还可以指"以退为进"的承认. The man who caused the accident finally conceded to the police that he had done it.造成这次交通事故的人最终向警 察承认他是肇事人. affiliate, link, attach, append 这一组动词都有"附加"的意思. affiliate v.加入,成为……一部分. an affiliated middle school 一所附属中学 link v.将人或物连接起来. The crowd linked arms to form a barrier.群众臂挽着臂 组成人墙.
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attach v.将某物系在,贴在,附在另一物上. I attached a note to my report with a paper clip.我 用别针将一张字条别在报告的后面. append v.增加,附加(与 attach 的意思比较接近). The lawyer appended two more pages to the contract. 律师在合同后又附加了两页. affirm, assert, allege, claim, announce, proclaim 这一组动词都有"声称"的意思. affirm v.坚信不疑地肯定或宣称,是 deny 的反义词. He affirmed his love for her.他发誓爱她. assert v.指不管事实如何,主观自信地宣称,或者清楚有 力地坚持某个情况为事实. She asserted that she was innocent .她宣称自己是无辜 的. allege v.在无真凭实据的情况下宣称,断定. The suspect alleged that he had not been in the neighborhood at the time of the crime.嫌疑犯声称案发时他 不在现场. claim v.要求,声称,断言.多指根据某种规定提出的要求 或主张. They claim that if more people rode bicycles to go to work there would be fewer automobiles in the downtown
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section of the city.他们生成如果有更多的人骑自行车上班的 话,闹市区的汽车就会有所减少. announce v.宣布,宣告.多指首次当众正式宣布某一主张 或态度,常常带有预告的意味. The invention of the printing press announced the diffusion of knowledge.印刷术的发明宣告了知识普及时代的 来临. proclaim v.宣布;宣告(成立).指经过深思熟虑后向大众 宣布一个明确的决定或判断,尤其指重大事件的宣布,多用于官 方场合. The president proclaimed an emergency when the war came. 当战争来临的时候总统宣布进入紧急状态.

(三) amplify, enlarge, stretch, magnify, reinforce, expand amplify v.扩大,增加,尤其指通过增强电压或电流使声音 扩大;补充叙述(故事,事件等). We must ask you to amplify your statement.我们得请你 对你的说法作进一步的说明. enlarge v.扩大,多指具体物品如相片的放大. enlarge photograph 放大照片 enlarge a house 扩建房屋

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stretch v. (有弹性地)伸展,延伸,并有可能超过限度; 伸长,伸出(身体某部位)并绷紧肌肉(尤指在放松后或为了够着 某物). The pullover stretched after I had worn it a few times. 这件套头毛衣我穿了几次之后就撑大了. Having finished their morning work, the clerks stood up behind their desks, stretching themselves.完成了早间 工作之后,职员们站到桌子后面伸伸懒腰. magnify v.放大,指用透镜或显微镜使物体看上去大一些. His eyeglasses magnify words so he can read them.他 借助眼睛把字放大以便能够阅读. reinforce v.增援,加固. expand v.指范围,体积的扩大,增大,也可以指内容或细 节的充实. The balloon expanded, then exploded.气球先是膨胀,然 后就爆破了. anger, fury, indignation, resentment 这一组名词都有"愤怒,生气"的意思. anger n.气愤,生气,是一般用语. After their argument, he expressed his anger by punching the other man in the face.争吵之后,他一拳打在 那个人的脸上以发泄怒气.
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fury n.暴怒,大怒,程度较 anger 要强. indignation n.义愤,尤其指出于道义上的激愤. general indignation at the sudden steep rise in bus fares 公共汽车票价突然猛增激起的公愤 resentment n.愤恨,怨恨,不满,是正式用语,尤指由于 受侮辱或自尊心受到伤害后而产生的愤慨. There was a feeling of resentment in the office after everyone's pay was lowered.大家的工资降低后,办公室里怨 声载道. apparent, evident, manifest, obvious, distinct 这一组形容词都有"明显的"之意. apparent a.明显的,显而易见的,尤其指容易观察到或认 识到的事物. He is very unhappy, and it is apparent that he wants to leave now.他很不高兴,显然他现在想走了. evident a.明白的,明显的,与 apparent 基本同意,多用 于推理或由事实证明的事物. It is evident that he is guilty; his fingerprints were found at the crime scene.显然他是有罪的,在犯罪现场发现 了他的指纹. manifest a.清楚的,明显的,多指根据外部特征或迹象便 能看出或了解其意义,常作表语.
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Her ability is manifest, but she is not attractive. 她才能出众,但长相并不动人. obvious a.明显的,显而易见的,含有无可辩白,不需证明 之意. It is obvious that that woman has had too much to drink. 很显然,那个妇女酒喝的太多了. distinct a.清楚的,明显的;不同的,独特的.修饰性质 明显不同的东西. Medical care has made a distinct improvement in his health.治疗已使他的健康有了明显的好转. applaud, clap, commend, praise applaud v.鼓掌,赞扬,指因精湛表演或某种行为得到别人 的赞许,大声叫好或热烈鼓掌. The boss applauded my efforts by praising my work. 老板表扬了我的工作,对我的努力表示赞许. clap v.拍打,其用法是 clap one's hand=applaud,不能说 applaud one's hands. clap sb.为某人鼓掌,clap sth.拍打某物 commend v.为正式用词,用于对具体功绩或成就表示嘉奖, 通常指上级对下级,长辈对晚辈的赞赏. The teacher commended the student for doing well on the exam.老师表扬学生们的考试成绩优异.
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praise v.为一般用词,用于对某人的优秀品质表示钦佩羡 慕;赞颂,赞美. A supervisor praised the employee for her good work. 一位主管称赞这位员工的工作做得不错. Survivors of the crash praised God for saving them. 坠机事件的幸存者赞颂上帝使他们得救. area, district, region, vicinity, zone 这一组名词都有"区域"的意思. area n.泛指面积较大的地区;面积;专业领域. The New York area has high rents.纽约地区房租很高. district n.行政区划的小范围地区.如 Xicheng district 北京西城区 region n.行政区划上更大的地区,如"自治区";身体部位. The northeast region of the USA includes New York and the six New England states.美国东北部包括纽约和新英格兰 地区的那六个州. vicinity n.周围地区,附近地区. The police were alerted that the escaped criminal might be in the vicinity.警察都十分警惕因为逃跑的罪犯就藏在附 近地区.

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zone n.指特定的地方,地带. The city passed a law to create a business zone on some empty land.市政府通过法律,在一些空地上开辟商业区. assembly, conference, congress, rally, seminar, session, summit, symposium 这一组名词都表示"会议"的意思. assembly n.集合,集会. The assembly of students takes place in the auditorium. 学生们在大礼堂举行集会. conference n. (专门性的)会议,讨论会. The conference on international economic problems met in Geneva.关于世界经济问题的会议在日内瓦召开. congress n.代表大会,(美国的)国会. Congress passes laws that must be obeyed by the people. 美国国会通过的法律,人民一定要遵守. rally n. (鼓舞士气的)集会;群众性集会. The football coach called a rally to build up the team's excitement for the next game.足球教练召开了一个动员会, 以便鼓舞士气打好下次比赛. seminar n. (大学的)研究班,研讨会. During summer vacations some teachers attend seminars at college.暑假里,一些教师在学院里参加研究班.
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session n. (一届)会议,回合. the autumn session of Parliament 议会的秋季会议 summit n.最高级会议,峰会(通常为领导人参加). Next year, the summit will be held in Vienna.明年将 在维也纳举行最高级会谈. symposium n. (学术,科研方面的)座谈会,专题报告会. The symposium on SARS research lasted two days.非典 型性肺炎研究的研讨会持续了两天. assessment, estimate, evaluation 这一组名词都有"评估"的意思. assessment n.评估,估价,常常表示对于财产,价值的评 估. We have a low assessment on our property.我们对我们 的资产评估很低. estimate n.估计, 强调进行评估得出的结果, 常与动词 give 搭配. The mechanic gave me a rough estimate of two or three hundred dollars for the repairs to my car.机械师给我的汽 车修理费的粗略估计是 200 或 300 美元. evaluation n. (对于能力,价值,工作业绩的)评价,估价, 常带有肯定的,正确的含义. He gave a positive evaluation of our scientific
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research.他对于我们的科学研究给予了积极的评价.

associate, ally, combine, unite 这一组词都有"联合"的意思. associate v.交往,结

交;联系,联想.多指平等友好的合作,后接 with,表示与某 人交往或合作,后接 in 表示在某个方面合作. We associate with our neighbors at church.在教堂里, 我们同邻居交往. ally v.使结盟,使联姻,多与 with 搭配. Several political parties allied with each other against higher taxes.几个政治党派联合起来反对提高税收. combine v.联合,化合,混合,多指为了某个目的将不同的 人或物混合而成一个整体. The girl combined sugar, butter, and flour to made the dough.小姑娘把糖,黄油和面粉混合到一起做成面团. unite v.联合,合并,团结,尤指不同的事物或人组成统一体, 强调结果的一致性. The nation united against its enemy.国民团结一致共同 对敌. average, common, general, universal, usual 这一组形容词都有"普通"的意思.

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average a.普通的,一般的,它强调的是一般水准或普通水 准;通常在有数字出现的情况下,表示"平均的". The average runner can run 2 miles in fifteen minutes. 跑步者 15 分钟内平均跑两英里. common a.常见的,普通的,不足为奇的,有时引申为"平凡 的",强调事物的共同性.另外,它还有"公共的,共同的"之意. Car accidents are a common occurrence.交通事故是很普 通的事件. general a.普通的,一般的,表示涉及到各方面,强调整体 性而非个别和例外,该词的反义词为 particular. In general, the economy is doing well now.总的来说, 现在的经济形式还不错. universal a.普遍的,比 general 语气更强,有"全然没有 例外"的意思. Poverty is a universal problem all over the world. 贫困是世界各地普遍存在的问题. usual a.通常的,惯常的,强调"习惯性的,符合规章制度 的",是个一般用语. award, reward award v.指正式地或官方地颁发,授予,给予;也可以指法 庭裁决给予.后面可跟双宾语.

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The school principal awarded a prize in history to the best student.学校校长将历史奖授予最出色的学生. reward v.酬劳,奖赏,回报,通常指因做了某一件事或提 供了某种服务而应得到报酬或酬谢, 其后一般以人或人的行为作 宾语.后跟 with 用来说明以何物作为报酬. I will reward to the person who returns my lost dog. 我将出 50 美元,酬谢帮我找回丢失的狗的人. aware, conscious aware a.知道的,意识到的,强调感官对外界事物的意识. He was aware of his mistake.他意识到自己的错误. conscious a.有意识的, 意识到的, 一般指内心所意识到的. The salesman is conscious of the fact that he must increase sales.销售员意识到他必须增加销售量. base, foundation, ground 这一组名词都有"基础"的意思. base n.指具体的有形的基础,也可指物体的底部,基部; 基地,总部. They use their apartment in New York as a home base from which they travel frequently.他们把纽约的公寓作为他们频 繁出行的大本营. foundation n.本义指建筑物的地基,含有坚实的基础的意 思;基金会.
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The foundation for our house is made of cement.我们 房子的地基是水泥打下的. ground n.地面,土地,也指地域,水底,海底. basic, elementary, fundamental basic a.基本的,基础的,既可用于具体事物,也可用于抽 象事物. He has a basic understanding of the problem.他对问题 有基本的了解. elementary a.初步的,初级的.elementary school 小学 fundamental a.根本性的, 一般只用于抽象的事物; 必要的, 必须的. Honesty is a fundamental principle in dealing with others.诚实是与别人相处的基本原则. beam, chuckle, giggle, grin, jeer, laugh, roar, sneer 这一组都有"笑"的意思,而它们之间的差别也是明显的. beam v.本义指照耀,放光,引申为"微笑",是正式用语, 指面带喜悦或笑容,暗示对他人的友好或内心的满足. She beamed with happiness.她高兴得眉开眼笑. chuckle v. (书面语)吃吃的笑,抿嘴笑,轻声笑,多指因 得意或领会到某事中的趣味而暗自发笑. She does not laugh out loud; she only chuckles.她没 有笑出声来,只是抿嘴而笑.
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giggle v.咯咯地笑,痴笑,傻笑,多指女人和孩子由于紧 张,被逗乐,尴尬时所发出的笑声. The schoolgirls giggled when the famous football player walkedsintostheir classroom.当这个著名的足球运动 员走进教室时,女生们都咯咯地笑起来. grin v.露齿而笑,指人因高兴,满足,轻蔑等咧开嘴露齿 地笑. He grinned at his mother.他冲他的妈妈咧嘴一笑. jeer v.讥笑,嘲笑,其同义词是 mock. The crowd jeered when the boxer was knocked down.当 那个拳手被人打倒时,人群开始嘲笑他. laugh v.笑,大笑,用于一般的笑或出声的大笑. roar v.怒吼,咆哮,引申为放声大笑,哄堂大笑. He roared when he heard the joke.听完这个笑话,他哈 哈大笑. sneer v.冷笑,嘲笑,指以语言,表情,和声调表示轻蔑或 嘲弄. He sneered at the offer and said it was two low.他对 报价嗤之以鼻,说它太低了. (四) bewilder, puzzle, confuse, embarrass, perplex 这一组词都有"迷惑"的意思.
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bewilder v.使困惑,使茫然,强调非常困惑,通常表现为 心理和智力的紊乱,语气最重. He was fired without warning and is completely bewildered about the reason.他没有得到事先警告就被开除 了,完全不明白是什么原因. When the farmers visited the city for the first time, they were bewildered by its complicated traffic system. 当这些农夫们第一次到城里的时候, 他们对城市复杂的交通系统 感到迷惑不解. puzzle v.使迷惑,感到不解,强调不理解或解决不了. Where the sunken treasure is puzzles explorers.沉没 宝藏的下落令探险家们大惑不解. confuse v.一般用语,使混乱,使糊涂,强调因混淆而使人 产生迷乱. He sent the wrong reports because he confused them with other ones.他发错了报告,因为他把它们同另外一些报告混淆 在一起了. embarrass v.使窘迫,使为难,使困惑,有令人不快,难为 情和内心混乱的意味. Her boyfriend embarrassed her by teasing her about her new hairstyle in front of others.她的男友在别人面前嘲笑 她的新发型,使她感到难堪.
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perplex v.使杂乱,使疑虑,

使不安. The new tax laws perplex me.新税收法律使我很费解. blame, condemn, reproach, scold 这一组动词都有"责怪"的意思. blame v.责怪,把……归咎于. You can't blame anyone in case you fail the exam.万 一你考试不及格,你不能怪罪任何人. condemn v.谴责,用于比较正式的,严肃的场合. The wife condemned her husband for drinking too much. 妻子因丈夫贪杯而责怪他. reproach v. (书面语)责备,表示不满. His teacher reproached him for not doing his homework. 老师责备他不做作业. scold v.责骂,训斥. blunder, error, mistake 这一组词都表示"错误". blunder n. (因为无知,疏忽犯下的)大错,愚蠢的错误. I think that I committed a blunder in asking her because she seemed very upset by my question.这位女士由于我的问 题感到很难过,我感觉到犯了一个大错. error n.指判断,计算或行为上的错误,也可指智力或道义 上的错误.
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The accident was the result of human error.这事故是 人为的错误造成的. mistake n.误会,误解;(粗心,遗忘所导致的)错误. I took your bag instead of mine by mistake.我错拿了 你的手提包. brittle, fragile, frail, crisp, invalid 这一组形容词都有"弱"的意思. brittle a.易碎的,易损坏的,通常是指坚硬的东西. The bones of elderly people become brittle and easily broken.老年人的骨头变得脆弱,很容易骨折. fragile a.常常修饰使用时必须小心才不会破碎的东西,也 引申为体弱的,虚弱的. He 's feeling a bit fragile after last night's party. 他参加了昨晚的聚会以后,现在感觉有些虚弱. (指人)体弱的,虚弱的,也可以指东西易碎的. His mother has grown old and frail.他母亲已经年老体 弱. crisp a.指食品的松脆;清新的,爽快的;活跃的,有生气 的,干净利落的. crisp biscuit 松脆的饼干 The student gave a clear, crisp answer to the teacher's question.学生干净利落地回答了老师的问题.
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frail a.

invalid a.不正确的,缺乏证据的;无效的,作废的.作名 词时,表示病弱者,伤残者,久病者. Your ideas about the first humans are interesting but invalid.你关于最早的人类的观点很有意思,但是缺乏证据. A bad car accident made him an invalid.一次严重的车 祸使他变成了残疾. boundary, border, frontier, rim, verge 这几个名词都有"边界"的意思. boundary n.边界;界线.多指作为界线的标识物等. The fence marks the boundary between my land and hers. 这道栅栏是我的地和她的地的分界线. border n.较宽的边缘,边界,多指两国或两地之间的分界 处附近的边缘地区,边界地带;也可以指物体的边缘等. We crossed the Mexican bordersintosthe USA.我们穿过 墨西哥边界进入美国境内. frontier n.边界,边境,边疆,指靠近边界(boundary)的 区域;也可引申为"未开发的领域","(学术的)前沿"等. The American West was still a frontier a century ago. 一个世纪以前美国西部还是一片边疆. She is a biochemist who works on the frontiers of biology.她是从事生物学前沿研究的生化学家. rim n.边,边缘,尤指圆形或近似圆形的物体的边缘.
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verge n. (道路,花坛等长着草的)边缘,引申为"某事即将 发生之际". on the verge of war 战争爆发之际 brief, concise, curt, succinct 这一组形容词都有"简短的"意思. brief a.简明扼要的,简短的,指时间短暂,办事利索,态 度明了等;有时含有"虽短但却不失全面"的意味. The manager made a brief statement to open the meeting. 经理致了简短的开幕词. concise a. (文字等的)简要,精练,常含有保留主要部分 的意思. His letter was concise, omitting everything not pertinent to the job.他的信写得简明扼要,省略掉了所有与 该项工作无关的部分. curt a.三言两语的,简短的,常含有"草率"的意思. He asked his boss a question, but got a curt reply , "I have no time for you now!"他问老板一个问题,但是老板 草率的说:"我没时间搭理你." succinct a.简明的,简洁的,简练的,尤指用词简练,除 含有 concise 的意思外,还有经过压缩的或简化的意思. succinct summary of the argument 论点的概要

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bush, shrub, jungle 这一组词均与树木有关. bush n.矮树丛. shrub n.有木茎的灌木,灌木丛. jungle n.热带稠密的雨林或丛林. certify, rectify, testify, verify 这是一组形近易混词. certify v.证明,声称是真的. He certified it was his wife's handwriting.他证明那 是他妻子的手迹. rectify v.改正,纠正;整顿. He rectified the mistake in the contract by changing its wording.他通过改变措辞纠正了合同里的错. testify v. (在法庭上)宣誓作证;表明. He is the only person who can testify in this case, because the other witnesses were killed mysteriously.由 于其他的证人已经被神秘地杀害, 他成为这件案例中唯一可以作 证的人. verify v. (用事实)证实或核实. I verified the store's address by calling to check it. 我打电话询问,以核实商店的地址.

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compel, constrain, force, oblige 这一组动词都有"强迫"的意思. compel v.强迫,迫使,常表示运用权利,力量迫使对方做 某事;有时也表示"别无办法,不得不做". His illness compelled him to stay in bed.他的病迫使 他卧床休息. constrain v.力劝,强迫,与 compel 意思相近,但更多强 调内心情感(如道德,怜悯等)的强迫和限制作用,一般用于正式 的场合. As an artist he didn't consider himself constrained by the same rules of social conduct as other people.他认为 自己是艺术家,不必象一般人那样要受到社会行为准则的约束. force v.强迫,迫使,暴力威胁的意味较浓,常用于被动语 态. The thief forced her to hand over the money.强盗逼迫 她把钱交出来. oblige v. (因法律,习俗等)强迫,迫使,常常用于被动. We are obliged to stop the car at a red light.我们遇 到红灯时必须停车. complaint, disorder 这两个词都有"疾病"的意思.

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complaint n.疾病(主要指病人去看病时向医生描述的病 症,既可以是小病,慢性病,也可以是传染性疾病);抱怨,埋 怨,不满. a heart complaint 心脏病 disorder n. (精神或肉体的)疾病(着重于身心,机能的失 调,不平衡);骚乱,动乱;混乱,杂乱. a disorder of the digestive system 消化系统疾病 complement, supplement,append 这三个名词都有"补充"的意思. complement n.补充,补充物,主要指补充不足使之完美. Rice makes an excellent complement to a curry dish. 有咖喱的菜配米饭最棒. supplement n.增补,补充,补贴,主要指另外补加,增补. One year after we made our report, we had to add a supplement to cover new events.我们在报告完成一年之后, 必须增补一个包含新事件的附加部分. append n.附加,添上或补充某事物(尤指文字). The lawyer appended two more pages to the contract. 律师在合同后又附加了两页. component, element, factor, ingredient 这一组名词都有"组成成分"的意思.

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component n.零部件;(某事物的)组成部分;成分. Tires, the engine, the body, and the seats are component of a car.轮胎,引擎,车身以及坐椅都是一辆汽车 的零部件. element n.元素;组成部分,方面;某特定类型的人或群体, 分子. The elements hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water. 氢元素和氧元素构成了水. He belongs to a bad element in this city.他属于这个 城市的坏分子. factor n.因素,要素,侧重指原因. Endurance is an important factor in success in sports. 耐力是体育比赛成功的一个重要因素. ingredient n.原料,成分,要素. Flour, milk, butter and yeast are some ingredients in bread.面粉,牛奶,黄油和酵母是做面包的一些原料.

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