Unit 1 Brainstorming
1. Adjectives for describing personality / character:
Positive adjectives: easy-going, honest, open-minded, humorous, interesting, pleasant, pleasurable, frank, sympathetic, helpful, loyal Negative adjectives: arrogant, dishonest, difficult, narrow-minded, boring, loathsome, unpleasant, selfish, rude, cowardly Neutral adjectives: complicated, reserved, silent, quiet, talkative, sophisticated, ambitious, aggressive, timid, impulsive, sociable / unsociable 2. Expressions for personal appearance / one's looks (most of these expressions describe the physical features of a person):
Size: thin, skinny, slim, slender, big, large, small, little, stout, plump, fat, robust, athletic, muscular Age: old, young, look old / young, doesn't look one's age, youngish, elderly, middle-aged, in one's thirties / forties ... Resemblance: look like somebody, resemble, take after somebody, have someone's eyes / nose / hair ... 3. Expressions for likes and dislikes: love, like, enjoy, be crazy / mad about, be keen on, be interested in dislike, feel sick about, hate, be indifferent to, don't care for, be disgusted with 4. Expressions for managing relationships: Improving relations: get along with, have a good or friendly relationship with, be on good terms with, live happily with, be kind / nice / agreeable to, compliment, praise, appreciate one's help / advice Hurting relations: laugh at, criticise, ridicule, quarrel with, split with, break up with, look down upon, interfere with one's affairs, have a bad relationship with, there is bad blood between ... and ..., be difficult / hard on somebody Neutral: cope with, keep in touch with, be in / out of contact with 5. Expressions for people we know or meet: friends, strangers, acquaintances, colleagues, classmates, schoolmates, roommates, fellow students, fellow workers, neighbours, alumnus (pl. alumni) employer - employee, superior - inferior / subordinate, teacher - student, doctor - patient, salesman - customer, etc.
1.Why was Charlie afraid of his brother? 1. Charlie's brother was very demanding. He used to ask Charlie to do things for him. If Charlie refused or didn't do well, he would hit Charlie or threaten not to take him to places he wanted to go to. 2. He or she will become dependent (on the elder brother or sister) and appear "weak".. 3. His brother used to order him about, and there were many "clashes" between them, so he looked upon his brother as his enemy 4. Once he was bullied by a classmate. His brother saw him crying, and became very angry after he told him the
truth. His brother then taught the bully a lesson. Since then, they have never quarrelled again
In the article, the narrator presents her personal impression about her father, a famous actor. In her mind, when she is a child, her father is devoted to his work and successful in his career, but has always been slightly out of touch with his family members. She thinks he is quite self-centred, vain, and unapproachable in some ways. They have little in common in their personal interests. So, they are not very close.
内容梗概: 本文讲述了作者与她作为名演员父亲之间的故事.在她记忆当中,她父亲整日忙于工作,虽 然事业辉煌腾达,功成名就,但却冷落了家庭成员.她觉得父亲自私,虚荣,冷漠.他们父 女之间没有共同的志趣,关系淡漠.
Para 1 I don't really know my father. He isn't easy to get on with. He's quite self-centred, and a little bit vain, I think, and in some ways quite unapproachable. The public must think he's very easy-going, but at home he keeps himself to himself. 我实在不了解我的父亲,与他相处很难.在我看来,他总以自我为中心,还有一 点自负,在某种程度上难以接近.公众一定以为他很随和,但在家里,他总是拒 人于千里之外. get on with: have a harmonious relationship with sb. 与…相处融洽 They are getting on quite well. I am now slowly getting on better with my schoolmates. [synonym] get along with [idioms] get away with 和…一起离开;拿走;抢走;侥幸逃脱 get in with 认识;接近;与…交往;巴结 self-centred: doing everything for the sake of oneself [word formation] n. + v.-ed ---- a. self-taught self-controlled a little bit: [colloq.] a little ; a bit I'm a little bit tired. vain: having too high an opinion of one's looks, abilities, etc. 自负的 conceited 虚荣的 without use 徒劳的,无效的 He's as vain as a peacock. 他自负极了. I don't like vain women. 我不喜欢虚荣心强的女人. What they have done are vain attempts. [idioms] in vain 徒劳,白费 All our wok was in vain. unapproachable: not easy to approach 不可亲近的,难以接近的 [word formation] negative prefix + v. + -able --- a. unanswerable (无法辩驳的);unaccountable (无法说明的) indispensable (不可缺少的);indisputable (不容置辩的) easy-going: easy to get along with 随和的,容易相处的
[word formation] ad. + v.-ing --- a. far-reaching 深远的, 广泛的 slow-moving 动作缓慢的, 滞销的 [grammatical point] 'easy' is not used as an adverb, except in the expressions 'go easy', 'take it easy', and 'easier said than done'. If you want to say that something is done without difficulty, you say that it is done 'easily'. keep oneself to oneself: never get in touch with others 不与人来往 [idioms] keep under: control keep in: remain inside, conceal keep off: not come near The fire has been kept under. Sometimes we have to keep in our feelings. Keep off the grass! Para 2 He can't have … whoever comes to the house. 在我小的时候,他一定很少在家,因为在我的记忆里关于他的不多.他总有点冷 落家庭成员.工作是第一要义,他总是离家去拍戏或排练.他喜欢别人索要他的 亲笔签名,喜欢出风头.他获得过几项大奖,并引以为荣.他还被授予英国皇家 成员的称号,为此我们不得不去白金汉宫领取勋章.授勋典礼简直无聊透顶.由 于有数百人获此勋章,因此你就不得不在那儿等上好几个小时.只要有人来我家 拜访,他总不忘向来访的每个人炫耀他的那些奖章. [summary] The narrator cites a number of examples to support her statements that her father is quite self-centred and a little bit vain. 1. He's always been slightly out of touch with family life. His work always came first, and he was always off somewhere acting or rehearsing. [paraphrase] He was seldom at home, seldom had time to be with his family, so he was unfamiliar with family life. To him, work was the most important thing, and he always left home to some far-away place to act or rehearse. out of touch: not having information 没有消息,生疏 I would like to go back to teaching but I'm out of touch with my subject now. out of: 1) from, not in 在…外 Mr. Green is out of town this week. 2) move from 离开,从…里 He jumped out of bed. It's hard to get a word out of him. 3) do sth. out of 出于,由于 They helped us out of kindness. 4) without, lacking 缺乏,没有 I'm beginning to feel out of patience. He has been out of work for six months. rehearse: v. practice ( a play, music, etc.) for public performance 排练,排演 rehearsal: n. The play is in rehearsal now. We'll meet after rehearsal. The actors were rehearsing in the tent. Some words about playing and rehearsing: play 表演 act 演出 star 主演 produce 制作 direct 导演 stage 上演 audition 试演 perform 演唱 2. He loves being asked for his autograph, he loves to be recognized. He has won several awards, and he's very proud of them. He was made a Member of the British
Empire, and we had to go to Buckingham Palace to get the medal. [cultural background] Member of the British Empire: or MBE, an honorable title awarded to accomplished British artists, writers or scientists autograph: n. person's own hand-writing, esp. his signature 亲笔签名 v. write one's name on or in 签名于 I have a book autographed by the author. I've got lots of famous footballers' autograph. recognize: acknowledge: 公认,赏识 Everyone recognized him as one of the greatest authors in the world. award: sth. given as the result of such a decision, esp. a prize in a competition cf. award reward A reward is usually something valuable, such as money, while an award is something such as a prize, certificate, or medal. The shop-keeper offered a reward of $50 for information about a stolen necklace. The only award he had ever won was the Top lady Prize for Divinity. 3 It was incredibly boring. There were hundreds of other people getting the same awards, and you had to sit there for hours. incredibly: extremely [grammatical point] The adverb 'incredibly' is an intensifier, denoting a high degree. The use of intensifiers is a common feature of spoken language. Similar intensifiers include 'terribly', 'awfully'. I am awfully glad to see you. It was terribly cold outside. boring: causing boredom 乏味的,单调的,令人生厌的 [word formation] v. + -ing --- a. [grammatical point] Both present participles and past participles used as attributes can be divided into two kinds. One has already become adjectives, the other still has the properties of a verb. See the following examples: an interesting film , a conceited man ( 'interesting' and 'conceited' are adjectives) guiding principles , outstretched arms ('guiding' and 'outstretched' still have the properties of a verb) Below is a list of some present and past participles that have become adjectives: alarming, amusing, demanding, striking, promising, confusing, misleading, surprising advanced, disappointed, frightened, pleased, distinguished, blessed, interested, learned The differences between present participles and past participles: a. Present participles indicate active voice, while past participles indicate passive voice. cf. a moving film 一部动人的影片 a moved audience 被感动了的观众 disappointing performances 让人失望的表现 a disappointed mother 一位失望的母亲 b. Present participles indicate sth. unfinished, while past participles mean sth. that has been done. cf. boiling water 正在沸腾的水 boiled water 已经煮沸的水 developed countries 发达国家 developing countries 发展中国家
5 He shows off his awards to whoever comes to the house. show off: make a display of one's wealth, learning, abilities, etc., in order to impress people 炫耀,卖弄 [idioms] show up: be present show one's face: appear before people The one I wanted to see in the party didn't show up. He is ashamed to show his face at the club. cf. show , indicate 'Indicate' has the general meaning 'show', and you can sometimes use 'indicate' and 'show' in a similar way, for example when you are talking about evidence or the results of research. Evidence indicates that the experiments were unsuccessful. Evidence shows that chronic illness predisposes the sufferer to commit suicide. However, 'indicate' and 'show' are not always used in the same way when they have a person as their subject. If someone 'indicates' an object, they show someone where it is, usually by pointing or nodding towards it. 'Indicate' is only used like this in stories. "The car is down there," she said, indicating it with a nod of her head. She sat down in the armchair that Mrs. Jones indicated. When 'indicate' has this meaning, it is sometimes used with an indirect object, although this use is not common. The indirect object always has 'to' in front of it. Without speaking, he indicated to him the inside of the hut. If you 'show' an object to someone, you hold it up or give or take it to them, so that they can see it and examine it. When 'show' has this meaning, it always takes an indirect object. When the indirect object comes after the direct object, you put 'to' in front of the indirect object. I show William what I had written. Fetch that drawing you did and show it to the doctor. whoever: pron. [leading noun-clause] 谁: Whoever's it was, it is now mine. prop. no matter who, regardless of who 无论谁,不管谁 Whoever else may object, I shall approve. Whoever did it, I didn't. prop. who ( expressing surprise) 究竟是谁:Whoever can that be? [grammatical point] Conjunction pronoun 'whoever' can lead nominal relative clause, making it the subject or object etc. of the sentence. Whoever did that should admit it frankly. ( subject ) He gave whoever asked for it a copy of his latest paper. ( indirect object ) 'Whoever' can also lead concessive adverbial clause. Whoever you marry, make sure he can cook. Para 3 I went to public school, … after animals, so that's what I now do.
我上的是公立学校,由于对功课毫无兴趣,再加上无故旷课,我被勒令退学.我本来就不愿 去那儿上学,因为我不得不离开我所有的朋友.把我送进那所学校父亲一定很满意,可到头 来纯粹是在浪费钱. 我猜我一定让他失望至极. 我试过几份工作, 但总无法安下心来. 后来, 我终于意识到我真正想做的就是在乡下照料家畜,于是一直干到现在.
[summary] The narrator tells of her school experience to show that her father is not aware of what she really needs and how she really feels. 1. I went to public school, and because of my total lack of interest and non-attendance I was asked to leave. non-attendance: n. not taking part in sth. (esp. a class) 不出席,不到(指上课等) [word formation] non-: prefix, who(which) is not, does not, etc. 不,非,无 non-compliance: n. refusal to comply 不顺从 non-stop: a. & ad. without a stop 中途不停留的,中途不停地,直达的 2. I didn't want to go there in the first place. [paraphrase] I had no intention to go there from the very beginning. in the first place: a. simply, at all 根本,本来 b. introduce or draw attention to the illustration of a series of points or reasons c. denote a very important point or reason Now, in the first place, what made you leave so suddenly, and in the second place, why did you leave no message? In the first place, I must define some terms. 3. I was taken away from all my friends. take away: remove 使离去,拿去,消除 The books are not to be taken away from a library. [idioms] take back: withdraw (what one has said) as an admission of error, as an apology, etc. 撤消,撤回(所说的话,以承认错误或道歉等) I take back what I have said. take on: undertake, charge oneself with 承接,担任 You'd better not take on extra work. take over: assume control of, succeed to the management or ownership of (a business, etc.) 接管,接收 Was it in 1948 that the Government took over the railways in Great Britain? take to: adopt as a practice or hobby, as a means of livelihood; get into a habit (作为习惯或嗜好,作为谋生手段) 采纳,从事,养成 My father took to gardening when he retired. 4. I let him down quite badly, I suppose. let down: disappoint 使…失望 lower 放下,放低 [idioms] let sth. slip: miss 错过 let sb. off: excuse, not compel, not punish 原谅,不强迫,不惩罚 let out: put out to hire 出租 How could you let such a good chance slip? Peter was let off with a fine of $10,000 instead of being sent to prison. This room was let out to a student. badly: ad. a. in a bad manner 坏地,恶劣地 b. by much 大大地 c. (with want, need) very much 非常地,极度地 I miss you so badly that I couldn't breathe. 5. I tried several jobs but I couldn't settle down in them.
settle down: a. (cause to) become calm, untroubled (使)安下心来,(使)安静 下来,(使)镇定下来 Settled down, children! She settled the baby down at last. I can't settle down to anything. I am restless. b. become established in a new way of life 定居,过安定的生活 c. be accustomed to 习惯,适应 I am sure that the child will soon settle down in his new school. [idioms] settle in: start to rain or snow for a long while, (spring, summer, etc.) arrive 雨或雪开始下个不停,春天或夏天等来临 It settled in to snow heavily soon after daybreak. settle up: pay off , wind up 付清欠款,结算帐目 e.g. settle up one's debts settle up an account Para 4 As a family, we're not that close, either emotionally … walks across the fields.
作为一家人,我们不仅住的地方相隔不近,在情感上也不那么亲近.这些天我们很少互相 走动.父亲和我性格迥异,或者说是貌合神离.乡村是我的乐趣所在,而父亲却对书本,音 乐,尤其是我最讨厌的歌剧感兴趣.就算他们真的来看我,也是穿着及其"不合地宜"的衣 服---貂皮大衣,漂亮小巧的皮鞋,根本不适合在田间远足.
[summary] The narrator examines the different interests she and her father have and tells of the gap between them. 1. As a family, we're not that close, either emotionally or geographically. [paraphrase] My father and I are not as close as a family should be, for family members are supposed to live very close together, and have a very close relation with each other. that: so 那么 [grammatical point] 'this' and 'that' can be used as an adverb to emphasize the degree of a feeling or quality. The book is about this thick. I don't want that much. We can't make our plans on that remote a possibility. geographically: ad. 在地理位置上 geographical: a. The physical features of an area are often referred to as its geographical features. A geographical area is one which is determined by its physical features, rather than, for example, by administrative or political boundaries. The country stretches over three very different geographical areas. There was gradual change over a broad geographical region. 'Geographical' and 'geographic' occur in the names of some organizations and publications concerned with the subject of geography. e.g. the Royal Geographical Society of Oslo the National Geographic Society the latest issue of National Geographic If you want to say that something relates to the teaching of geography, you use 'geography' in front of another noun. You do not use 'geographical' or 'geographic'.
e.g. a geography book my geography course 2. My father and I are totally different, like chalk and cheese. My interests have always been the country, but he's into books, music and above all, opera, which I hate. chalk and cheese: a British idiom, suggesting two completely different things. The original form is 'as different as chalk from cheese'. 外貌相似而实质不同的 be into: be interested in (informal English) Teenagers are into computer games these days. opera: dramatic composition with music, in which the words are sung 歌剧 light opera: opera with a humorous subject grand opera: opera with no spoken dialogue 3. If they do come to see us, they're in completely the wrong clothes for the country-mink coats, nice little leather shoes, not exactly ideal for long walks across the fields. do: auxiliary verb used to emphasize the verb that follows My parents think I didn't study for my exams, but I did study. -- Do you remember how kind she was? -- I certainly do remember. ideal: a. satisfying one's idea of what is perfect 理想的,完美的 It's ideal weather for a holiday. b. (contrasted with real) existing only in the imagination or as an idea; not likely to be achieved 想象中的,理想中的 ideal happiness 想象中的快乐 ideal plans for reforming the world n. idea looked upon as perfect 理想,理想的东西 She is looking for a husband but hasn't found her ideal yet. Para 5 He was totally opposed to me getting married. He … because you want grandchildren.
对于我的婚姻,他及其反对,且一直希望我们分手.我想是杰拉德出身太卑微了.父亲一 定是想让我和名人结合,但我没有,就这么回事.我和丈夫不想要小孩,可父亲却不停地唠 叨说想要个外孙.但总不能因为你想要个外孙就让别人生小孩吧.
1. He was totally opposed to me getting married. be opposed to me getting… [grammatical point] The possessives 'my', 'your', ect. and genitives like 'John's' can be used before gerunds, acting as the logical subject of the gerunds. Do you mind my making a suggestion? I'm annoyed about John's forgetting to pay. In informal English, it is more common to use forms like 'me', 'you', 'John' instead, especially when these forms are functioning as the grammatical object of the sentence. Pardon me saying that. She forgave her doing it. Note that the verbs 'see', 'hear', 'feel', 'smell' are not usually followed by possessives + gerund. I saw him getting out of his car. ( Not:* I saw his getting… )
2. He was hoping we would break up. Gerald's too humble, I suppose. break up: decompose, split 分手,分解,分开; smash, demolish 捣毁 [idioms] break out: escape, start suddenly 逃脱,突然发生 break down: overthrow by force, suppress 武力推翻,镇压 break off: stop speaking, separate 停止说话,中断说话,折断 A fire broke out during the night. The government broke down all resistance. He broke off in the middle of a sentence. humble: low in rank or position, obscure, modest 地位低下的,谦恭的 They are men of humble birth. He is very humble towards his superiors. Para 6 I never watch him on television. I'm not that interested, and anyway he usually forgets to tell me when he's on.
on: on television 1) You say something happens 'on' a particular day or date. She intended to come to see the play on the following Friday. Caro was born on April 10th. 2) You can sometimes use 'on' to say that one thing happens immediately after another. For example, if something happens on someone's arrival, it happens immediately after they arrive. "It's unfair," Clarissa said on her return. 3) Sometimes you use 'on' to indicate membership. He is on the committee. 他是委员会中的一员. He's on the 'The Daily Telegraph' (i.e. is a member of the staff of this newspaper). 4) You use 'on' to say what the subject of a book is. e.g. a book on astronomy However, you do not use 'on' to say what a novel or play deals with. You do not say, for example, 'The Coral Island is on three boys on a deserted island'. You say 'The Coral Island is about three boys on a deserted island'. 5) 'On' is sometimes used as an adverb, usually to indicate that something continues to happen or be done. His spirit lives on. She plodded on, silently thinking.
A. In the article, the narrator presents her personal impression about her father from two perspectives: first, she describes her father's character, which is completely different from hers; second, she tells the reader that she and her father have different interests. So, they are not very close. B. The second paragraph: The narrator cites a number of examples to support her statement that her father is quite self-centred and a little bit vain really feels The third paragraph: The narrator tells of her school experience to show that her father is not aware of what she really needs and how she The fourth paragraph: The narrator examines the different interests she and her father have and tells of the gap between them C. 1. The narrator does not feel close to her father. In her opinion, her father is not easy to get on with.
He is quite self-centred and unapproachable in some ways. Besides, her father is not aware of how she really feels 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. She doesn't remember much about her father because he wasn't at home much when she was a child. Her father has always been slightly out of touch with family life 3. Her father is an actor. He is quite devoted to his work and successful in his career for he has won several awards and was made an MBE She thinks her father is a little bit vain. He loves being asked for his autograph, loves to be recognised, and shows off his awards to whoever comes to his house She was asked to leave school because of her total lack of interest and non-attendance. It was her father who got her into the school in the first place. She herself didn't want to go there She tried several jobs but she couldn't settle down in them because they were not challenging enough They have little in common in their personal interests. While she is interested in quiet country life, her father is into books, music and, above all, opera Her father was totally opposed to her marriage. He thought that her husband was too humble and she should have married someone famous. She thinks that her father wishes that they would break up 9. She is not going to have children even though her father keeps talking about wanting grand-children 10. They don't see much of each other these days because they are not that close, either emotionally or geographically
Dictation A generation ago, children in many western countries would like to move out of home when they left school for work or college study. They would rent a room or share a flat with other teenagers.But today's young adults are not in such a hurry to leave. It is often more comfortable to live at home than to rough it in cheap accommodation . There are two reasons for this change. The first reason is the depressed job market, which makes it more and more difficult for young schoolleavers to get a good job. Besides, many governments have made severe cuts in educational funding. Students are required to pay fees or part of the fees for college education. The second reason is a change of attitude toward life. Today's young people have more spending power than their parents and they are more prepared to use it. They tend to live for the present ratehr than prepare themselves for the future
我的父亲 ——— 来自一名著名演员的女儿的自述 我实在不了解我的父亲,与他相处很难.在我看来,他总以自我为中心,还有一点自负, 在某种程度上难以接近.公众一定以为他很随和,但在家里,他总是拒人于千里之外. 在我小的时候,他一定很少在家,因为在我的记忆里关于他的不多.他总有点冷落家庭成 员.工作是第一要义,他总是离家去拍戏或排练.他喜欢别人索要他的亲笔签名,喜欢出风 头.他获得过几项大奖,并引以为荣.他还被授予英国皇家成员的称号,为此我们不得不去 白金汉宫领取勋章.授勋典礼简直无聊透顶.由于有数百人获此勋章,因此你就不得不在那 儿等上好几个小时.只要有人来我家拜访,他总不忘向来访的每个人炫耀他的那些奖章.
我上的是公立学校,由于对功课毫无兴趣,再加上无故旷课,我被勒令退学.我本来就 不愿去那儿上学,因为我不得不离开我所有的朋友.把我送进那所学校父亲一定很满意,可 到头来纯粹是在浪费钱.我猜我一定让他失望至极.我试过几份工作,但总无法安下心来. 后来,我终于意识到我真正想做的就是在乡下照料家畜,于是一直干到现在. 作为一家人,我们不仅住的地方相隔不近,在情感上也不那么亲近.这些天我们很少互相 走动.父亲和我性格迥异,或者说是貌合神离.乡村是我的乐趣所在,而父亲却对书本,音 乐,尤其是我最讨厌的歌剧感兴趣.就算他们真的来看我,也是穿着及其"不合地宜"的衣 服---貂皮大衣,漂亮小巧的皮鞋,根本不适合在田间远足. 对于我的婚姻,他及其反对,且一直希望我们分手.我想是杰拉德出身太卑微了.父亲一 定是想让我和名人结合,但我没有,就这么回事.我和丈夫不想要小孩,可父亲却不停地唠 叨说想要个外孙.但总不能因为你想要个外孙就让别人生小孩吧. 我从不看他演的电视节目,不怎么想看.何况他还常忘了告诉我播出的时间. ( 湖南大学外国语学院 2001 级葛玉译,曾婷修改 )