句子成分(Members of a Sentence)
3. The universe │remains.
4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。
什么叫句子成分呢？句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中，词与 5. Who │cares?
词之间有一定的组合关系，按照不同的关系，可以把句子分为不同的组 6. What he said │does not matter. 他所讲的没有什么关系。
成成分。句子成分由词或词组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种， 7. They │talked for half an hour. 他们谈了半个小时。
即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种：主 8. The pen │writes smoothly
定语（attribute）、状语(adverbial) 和补语（complement）。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省
基本句型 二： Ｓ Ｖ Ｐ （主＋系＋表）
一： Ｓ Ｖ （主＋谓）
二： Ｓ Ｖ Ｐ （主＋系＋表）
keep, seem 等属一类，表示情况；get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类，
三： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ （主＋谓＋宾）
四： Ｓ Ｖ ｏ Ｏ （主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾）
五： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ Ｃ （主＋谓＋宾＋宾补）
好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好，smell bad/难闻
Ｓ │Ｖ（是系动词）│ Ｐ
基本句型 一：Ｓ Ｖ （主＋谓）
1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。
2. The dinner │smells │good.
主语：可以作主语的成分有名词（如 boy），主格代词（如 you）， 3. He │fell │in love.
动词不定式，动名词等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词 4. Everything │looks │different.
5. He │is growing │tall and strong.
谓语：谓语由动词构成，是英语时态、语态变化的主角，一般在主 6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少
语之后。不及物动词（vi.）没有宾语，形成主谓结构，如：We come. 钱。
此句型的句子有一个共同特点，即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的 7. Our well │has gone │dry.
意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词，后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从 8. His face │turned │red.
There be 结构： There be 表示‘存在有’。这里的 there 没有实际
Ｓ │ Ｖ （不及物动词）
1. The sun │was shining.
2. The moon │rose.
试比较：There is a boy there.（那儿有一个男孩。）/前一个 there 无
实意，后一个 there 为副词‘那里’。
1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。
2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿
基本句型 三： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ （主＋谓＋宾）
美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。
此句型句子的共同特点是：谓语动词都具有实义，都是主语产生的 4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。
动作，但不能表达完整的意思，必须跟有一个宾语，即动作的承受者， 5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片
才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后，一 6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。
般同主语构成一样，不同的是构成宾语的代词必须是‘代词宾格’，如： 7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。
8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。
Ｓ │Ｖ（及物动词）│ Ｏ
1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案？ 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。
基本句型 五： Ｓ Ｖ Ｏ Ｃ （主＋谓＋宾＋宾补）
3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。
4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。
5. They │ate │what was left over. 他们吃了剩饭。
6. He │said │"Good morning." 他说："早上好！"
7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. 我想喝杯茶。
8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. 他承认犯了错误。
名词/代词宾格 + 名词
基本句型 四： Ｓ Ｖ ｏ Ｏ （主＋谓＋间宾＋直宾）
The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词
有些及物动词可以有两个宾语，如：give 给，pass 递，bring 带， New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松.
show 显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人，为间接宾语；一个指物，为直 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语
接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为：动词 + 间 I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作.
接宾语 + 直接宾语。如：Give me a cup of tea,please.
名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式
强调间接宾语顺序为：动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如：
The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗
Show this house to Mr.Smith.
若直接宾语为人称代词：动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如： 名词/代词宾格 + 分词
Bring it to me,please.
I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路.
Ｓ │Ｖ（及物）│ ｏ（多指人） │ Ｏ（多指物）
Ｓ │Ｖ（及物）│ Ｏ（宾语） │ Ｃ（宾补）
1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。
There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。
2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色
3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。
His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。
4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。
His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。
5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想？
There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有 Tom 家的两个男孩。
6. We │saw │him │out. 我们送他出去
7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. 他要我早点回来。
The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里的男孩需要你的一
8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽 支钢笔。
The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。
There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个 9 岁的，三个 10 岁的男孩。
句型的成分不变外，通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语 The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。
（modifier）而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词（主要是形容词、副 It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。
词和数词），也可以是各种类型的短语（主要是介词短语、不定式短语 There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。
The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。
The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 不定式作定语：
子，汉语中常用‘……的’表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修 The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男孩需要一支钢笔。
饰 some,any,every,no 构成的复合不定代词时，（如：something、nothing）； The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。
或不定式、分词短语作定语、从句作定语时，则定语通常置后。副词用 There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。
The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那个微笑的男孩需要
The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy；blue 修饰名词 pen.）/ 一支他妈妈买的钢笔。
The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是中国产的。
Tom is a handsome boy./Tom 是个英俊的男孩。
There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。
There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。
The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday./那个在
Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。
The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。
The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。
There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有五个。
Having to finish his homework,the boy needs a pen./因为不得不完成作业，
男孩需要一支笔。（原因状语） Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./（因为）受了惊吓，他无声地坐在那
后，强调时放在句首；修饰形容词或副词时，通常位于被修饰的词之前； The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。
点状语一般须在时间状语之前；一些表示不确定时间（如：often）或程 To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very interested in business./为
度（如：almost）的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、情态动词之后， 实现梦想,汤姆变得对商业很有兴趣.
有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义，应注意，如：The boy calls Come this way!/走这条路！（方向状语）
the girl in the classroom.一般理解成‘男孩喊教室里的女孩‘（此时 in the 状语从句：
classroom 为 girl 的定语），也可以理解为‘男孩在教室里喊女孩’（此 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状
时 in the classroom 为地点状语），最好写作‘In the classroom,the boy calls 语从句
副词（短语）作状语： The boy needs a pen very much./男孩非常需要一支钢笔。（程度状语）
The boy needs very much the pen bought by his mother./男孩非常需要他 以说明的成分，近乎于后置定语。如：
We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语，都是指同一批
The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。（程度状语）
The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a pen./The boy,now,needs a We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语，都指同样的‘我们’）
介词短语作状语：In the classroom,the boy needs a pen./在教室里，男孩 需要一支钢笔。（地点状语）
Before his mother,Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩 称为句子独立成分(注意：区别于分词独立结构)。
On Sundays,there is no student in the classroom./星期天,教室里没有学 肯定词 yes
He sits there,asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。（表示伴随状态）
插入语：一些句中插入的 I think , I believe,等。
如: The story,I think,has never come to the end./我相信,这个故事还远没结 束. 情态 词 , 表 示 说 话 人的语气（多作为修饰全句的状语） :perhaps 也
① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here.
许,maybe 大概,acturely 实际上,certainly 当然，等。
③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.
否则应有自己的逻辑主语，构成分词独立结构。 例： 错句：Studying hard,your score will go up. 正确：(1) Studying hard,you can make your score go up.
或 (2)If you study hard,your score will go up. 解析：错句中分词 studying 没有自带逻辑主语，则其逻辑主语就是句子 的主语，既 your score . 显然做 study 的应是人，不应是 your score（分 数）. 正确句(1)更正了句子的主语,使其与分词逻辑主语一致( 同为 you );正确句(2)则使用条件分句带出 study 的主语,(不过已经不是分词结 构了). 分词独立结构常省略 being,having been.不过‘There being...’的 场合不能省略. 如：
Game (being) over,he went home. He stands there,book (being) in hand. 独立结构还可用 with、without 引导， 作状语或定语。这种结构不但可以用分词，还可以用不定式、形容词、 介词短语、副词或名词等。 如： With nothing to do,he fell asleep soon./无事可做，他很快就睡着了。 The teacher came in,with glasses on his nose./老师进来了，戴着一付眼镜。 （注意，此句 on his nose 不可省略！）
句子成分练习题( 一 )
(一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词（4 分， 4 分钟）
④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.
(二) 选出句中谓语的中心词（10 分， 10 分钟）
① I don't like the picture on the wall.
② The days get longer and longer when summer comes.
C. days D. summer
③ Do you usually go to school by bus?
④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon.
A. will be B. meeting
C. the library D. afternoon
⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast?
C. have D. breakfast
⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday.
A. Tom B. didn't
D. his homework
⑦ What I want to tell you is this.
A. want B. to tell
C. you D. is
⑧ We had better send for a doctor.
C. send D. doctor
④ Soon They all became interested in the subject.
⑨ He is interested in music.
⑤ She was the first to learn about it.
(五) 挑出下列句中的定语（6 分，6 分钟）
⑩ Whom did you give my book to?
① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name.
A. give B.did
C. whom D. book
② What is your given name?
(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语（10 分，10 分钟）
③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3.
① My brother hasn't done his homework.
④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor.
② People all over the world speak English.
⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.
③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.
⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe!
④ How many new words did you learn last class?
(六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语（6 分， 6 分钟）
⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you? ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the
⑥ The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill.
⑦ They made him monitor of the class.
② He asked her to take the boy out of school.
⑧ Go across the bridge and you will find the museum on the left.
③ She found it difficult to do the work.
⑨ You will find it useful after you leave school.
④ They call me Lily sometimes.
⑩ They didn't know who "Father Christmas" really is.
⑤ I saw Mr Wang get on the bus.
(四) 挑出下列句中的表语（5 分， 5 分钟）
⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
① The old man was feeling very tired.
(七) 挑出下列句中的状语（8 分， 8 分钟）
② Why is he worried about Jim?
① There was a big smile on her face.
③ The leaves have turned yellow.
② Every night he heard the noise upstairs.
③ He began to learn English when he was eleven.
(五)① family ②given③third ④ some ⑤ downstairs ⑥ of the
④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast.
⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.
(六)①to read newspapers and books ②to take the boy ③ difficult
⑥ She loves the library because she loves books.
④ Lily ⑤ get on the bus ⑥ playing football
⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it.
(七)① on her face. ②Every night ③ when he was eleven.
⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine.
④ too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm ⑥ because
(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语（5 分， 5 分钟）
she loves books. ⑦ if you’ve lost it ⑧ to see the other machine.
① Please tell us a story.
(八)① us, 间接宾语
a story, 直接宾语
② My father bought a new bike for me last week.
② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直
③ Mr Li is going to teach us history next term.
④ Here is a pen.Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me? 答案
④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语
句子成分练习题( 二 ) 指出下列句子中划线部分的句子成分：
(一)① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do
1.Whether we’ll go depend on the weather .
(二)① B② A ③ C ④ A
⑤ C ⑥ C ⑦ D ⑧ C⑨ 2. People’s standards of living are going up steadily .
3. That was how they were defeated.
( 三 ) ① homework. ② English. ③ attention
④ words ⑤ to go 4.The nursery takes good care of our children .
swimming ⑥ he was ill. ⑦ him monitor ⑧bridge museum⑨ it
5.I’ll return the book to you tomorrow .
school. ⑩ who"Father Christmas"really is.
6.We are sure that we shall succeed .
(四)①tired. ②worried ③yellow. ④interested ⑤the first
7.The woman with a baby in her arms is his other .
8.There are many film that I’d like to see.
9.Have you met the person about whom he was speaking ?
1、 ___ six years since I began to study English.
10.I have a lot of work to do .
A. It is B. I have been C. There are D. It was
11. Anyway I won’t stop you from doing it .
2 、___ in the room at that time.
12. I said it in fun .
A. Nobody was B. Someone were C. Who is D. He are
13. We can send a car over to fetch you .
3 、IT'S very noisy outside. ___ is going on?
14. She had to work standing up .
A. Who B. What C. Which D. Where
15. Seeing this ,some comrades became very worried .
4、 ___ in English in class every day is important.
16. Much interested , he agreed to give it a try .
A. Speak B. Talking C. Saying D. To tell
17. The bus arrived ten minutes late .
5 、There must be____ near the factory.
18. We should serve the people heart and soul.
A. a book store B. book store C. books store D. books stores
19. Spring coming on , the tree turned green .
6 、Although it's raining hard, ___ are still working in the fields.
20. Some farmers saw something strange in the sky .
A. but they B. and they C. they D. since they
21. We think it necessary that everyone should attend the
1、 The doctor as well as the nurses ___ great concern for the
22. It’s strange that she doesn’t come today .
23. It was in the library that I come today .
A. show B. shows C. have shown D. are showing
24. He likes drawing at times when he isn’t working .
2、 Your son must be a clever boy, ___ he?
25. We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door. 句子成分练习题( 三 )
A. is B. isn't C. must D. mustn't 3、 The computer center, ___ last year, is very popular among
students in this school.
1 、We should get ready___ others.
A. open B. opening C. opened D. being opened
A. helping B. to help C. help D. help with
4 、I ___ go to the shop today, for there is a lot of food at home. 2、 ___interesting work we are doing?
A. mustn't B. had to C. can't D. needn't
A. What a B. How C. What D. What an
5 、Don't ___ excited.
3、 I want___ a teacher when I grow up (-fx;fc).
A. get B. is C. seem D. look
A. to be B. to C. be D. being
6 This room ___ every morning.
4、 -Would you like to go on a picnic with me today?
A. is cleaning B. is cleaned C. cleans D. cleaning
-I don't think so. To be honest, I really don't feel like___on a
1、 Glad to meet you! ___ is your full name?
A. going B. to go C. go D. went
A. What B. Where C. How D. Who
5 Do you know___?
2、 He is ___ to lift the heavy box.
A. where does he live B. where he lives
A. too weak B. weak tooC. enough weak D. weak enough
C. where he live D. if where he lives
3、 The days are ___ warmer and warmer in spring.
6 Let ____ do it again.
A. getting B. looking C. seeming D. going
A. I B. me C. he D. she
4 、His job is____English.
7 I don't know___.
A. teach B. to teach C. taught D. teaches
A. how to do B. what to do C. where to do D. when to do
5 、Two balls are___.
A. under the desk B. in the wall C. to here D. at desks
1、 I saw him ___ basketball with Jack an hour ago.
A. plays B. to play C. played D. play o
2、 Sorry, we've kept you___ for a long time.
( ) 1 America, Japan and Canada are___countries.
A. waited B. sing C. stand D. waiting
A. developing B. developed C. less developed D. develop
3 、The teacher told us ____ late again.
( ) 2 -___ skirt is that on the chair?
A. aren't be B. don't be C. not to be D. not be
-Let me see. Oh, no, it's not mine.
4 、We find the room very___.
A. Whose B. What C. Who's D. Which
A. warm B. warmly C. terribly D. hardly
( ) 3 Do you have anything ___?
A. saying B. to^ay C. said D. say
1 、I found ___ difficult to work together with him.
( ) 4 Look, there is an___tree by the wall.
A. it B. its C. that D. those
A. apple B. apple's C. apples' D. apples
2 、We all know ___ our duty to clean our classroom after ( ) 5 Where is____seat?
school every day.
A. yours B. your C. you D. yourselves
A. that B. this C. which D. it
3、 He found ___ very interesting to play with the little dog.
( ) 1 The box is ___ heavy for her ___ carry.
A. what B. it C. / D. that
A. very; to B. too; not to
C. too; to D. very too; to
( ) 1 Tom said he ___ a good dream yesterday evening.
2 -___ did you buy the new bag?
A. dream B. dreamed C. have D. has
( ) 2 Children ___ a happy life in China.
A. Where B. How C. When D. Who
A. lead B. living C. has D. leading
3 You can see these signs in a hospital. ___ can you see them?
A. Where else B. Where place else
C. Where else place D. Else where 4 They went out ___ their old friends.
A. visit B. visiting C. to visit D. visited 5 There is a wide river____ our village.
A. outside B. over C. from D. below J 1 The young man, ___ works in the office. A. me brother B. my brother C. my brothers D. me 2 Our English teacher, ___ often helps us with study. A. Mrs Wang B. Mrs5 WangC. MrsWang's . D. of him 3 ___, some railway workers are busy repairing the train. A. Them B. He C. They D. Theirs
A . 1-6 A A B B A C B. 1-6 B B C D A B C. 1-5 A A A B A D. 1-7 B C A A B B B E. 1-4 D D C A F. 1-3 A D B G. 1-2 B A H. 1-5 B A B A B I .1-5 C C A C A J. 1-3 B A C