? Jane Eyre (pronounced /?d ?e?n ? ??r/) is a famous and influential novel by English writer Charlotte Bront?. It was published in London, England in 1847 by Smith, Elder & Co. with the title Jane Eyre. An Autobiography under the pen name "Currer Bell". ? (Harper & Brothers of New York came out with the American edition in 1848.)
? Jane Eyre is a first-person narrative of the title character, a small, plain-faced, intelligent and honest English orphan. The novel goes through five distinct stages: Jane's childhood at Gateshead, where she is abused by her aunt and cousins; her education at Lowood School, where she acquires friends and role models but also suffers privations; her time as the governess of Thornfield Manor, where she falls in love with her Byronic (悲歌式的 )employer, Edward Rochester; her time with the Rivers family at Marsh's End (or Moor House) and Morton, where her cold clergyman-cousin St John Rivers proposes to her; and her reunion with and marriage to her beloved Rochester at his house of Ferndean.
? Partly autobiographical, the novel abounds with social criticism and sinister gothic elements.. ? Bront? dedicated the novel's second edition to William Makepeace Thackeray.
Chapters 1-4: Jane's childhood at Gateshead
? The novel begins in Gateshead Hall, where a ten-yearold orphan named Jane Eyre is living with her uncle?s family. The uncle, surnamed Reed, dies shortly after adopting Jane. His wife, Mrs. Sarah Reed, and her three children (John, Eliza and Georgiana) neglect and abuse Jane. They dislike Jane‘s plain looks and quiet yet passionate character. The novel begins with young John Reed bullying Jane, who retaliates(反击 ), with unwonted(异常的 ) violence. ? Jane is blamed for the ensuing (随后的)fight, and Mrs. Reed has two servants drag her off and lock her up in the ―Red Room‖, the unused chamber in which Mr. Reed died.. Then Jane has a fit and passes out（昏厥）. An apothecary（药师 ）, Mr. Lloyd, comes to Gateshead Hall and suggests that Jane goes to school.
Chapters 5-10: Jane's education at Lowood School
? Mr. Brocklehurst is a self-righteous and highly hypocritical clergyman who runs a charity school called Lowood Institution. He accepts Jane as a pupil in his school, but Jane is devastated when Mrs. Reed asks him to warn the teachers that she has a tendency to deceit. After Brocklehurst departs, Jane bluntly tells Mrs. Reed how she hates the Reed family. Mrs. Reed, so shocked that she is scarcely capable of responding, leaves the drawing room in haste.
? Jane initially finds life at Lowood grim. Miss Maria Temple, the youthful superintendent, is just and kind, but another teacher, Miss Scatcherd, is sour and abusive. Mr. Brocklehurst, visiting the school for an inspection, has Jane placed on a tall stool before the entire assemblage after dropping and breaking a slate. He then tells them that ―...this girl, this child, the native of a Christian land, worse than many a little heathen （异教徒 ）who says its prayers to Brahma （印度教婆罗门 ）and kneels before Juggernaut（印度毁灭之神 ）—this girl is—a liar!"
? Although his family leads a luxurious lifestyle, Mr. Brocklehurst hypocritically preaches to others a doctrine of privation and poverty. As a result, Lowood?s eighty pupils must make do with cold rooms, poor meals and thin garments whilst his family lives in comfort. The majority become sick from a typhus（斑疹伤寒 ） epidemic that strikes the school. ? Jane is impressed with one pupil, Helen Burns, who accepts Miss Scatcherd?s cruelty. Jane admires and loves the gentle Helen and they become good friends. While the typhus epidemic is raging, Helen dies of consumption (tuberculosis肺结核 ) in Jane's arms. ?
? Many die in the typhus epidemic, and Mr. Brocklehurst's neglect and dishonesty are laid bare. Several rich and kindly people donate to put up a new school building in a more healthful location. New rules are made, and improvements in diet and clothing are introduced.
Chapters 11-26: Jane's time as governess at Thornfield Manor
? The narrative resumes eight years later. Jane has been a teacher at Lowood for two years. ? She advertises as a governess and is hired by Mrs. Alice Fairfax, housekeeper of the Gothic manor Thornfield, to teach a rather spoiled but amiable little French girl named Adèle Varens. A few months after her arrival at Thornfield, Jane goes for a walk and aids a horseman who has sprained his ankle when his horse slipped on a patch of ice. She helps him back on the horse and he inquires as to her place of residence without revealing his own identity. On her return to Thornfield, Jane discovers that the horseman is her employer, Mr. Edward Rochester, a moody yet wonderful, passionate, Byronic, and charismatic gentleman nearly twenty years older than she.
? Rochester seems quite taken with Jane. He repeatedly summons her to his presence and talks with her. Jane is happy at Thornfield, but there are soon events to tarnish her new happiness: a strange laugh in the halls, a near fatal fire from which she has to save the master of the house, an attack upon a houseguest: Mr Richard Mason. ? receiving word that Mrs. Reed, upon hearing of her son John?s apparent suicide after leading a life of dissipation and debt, has suffered a near-fatal stroke and is asking for her. Jane returns to Gateshead and remains there for over a month while a frequently incoherent Mrs. Reed lies dying in bed. Although she rejects Jane‘s efforts at reconciliation, Mrs. Reed gives Jane a letter that she had previously withheld ，out of spite （怨恨 ）. The letter is from Jane's father's brother, John Eyre, notifying her of his intent to leave her his fortune upon his death. ?
? About a fortnight after Jane?s return to Thornfield, Jane, after months of concealing her emotions, vehemently （激烈地 ）proclaims her love for Edward, who in turn passionately proposes to her.
? The wedding goes ahead nevertheless. But during the ceremony in the church, the mysterious Mr. Mason and a lawyer step forth and declare that Rochester cannot marry Jane because his own wife is still alive. ? Rochester bitterly and sarcastically admits this fact, explaining that his wife is a violent madwoman whom he keeps imprisoned in the attic, where Grace Poole looks after her. But Grace Poole imbibes gin (喝 酒)immoderately, occasionally giving the madwoman an opportunity to escape. It is Rochester's mad wife who is responsible for the strange events at Thornfield. ? Rochester nearly committed bigamy重婚罪 , and kept this fact from Jane. The wedding is cancelled, and Jane is heartbroken.
Chapters 27-35: Jane's time with the Rivers
? In the dead of night, she slips out of Thornfield and takes a coach far away to the north of England. When her money gives out, she sleeps outdoors on the moor and reluctantly begs for food. One night, freezing and starving, she comes to Moor House (or Marsh End) and begs for help. St. John Rivers, the young clergyman who lives in the house, admits her after his servant, Hannah, refuses to allow her into the house. There she is cared for by the sisters of St. John, Diana and Mary, who are only too happy to nurse her back to health. They are, in fact, more warm towards her than St. John, who is wary of the stranger in his home.
? Jane, who gives the false surname of Elliott, quickly recovers. St. John arranges for Jane to teach a charity school for girls in the village of Morton. ? When St. John becomes more comfortable around Jane, and once she recovers from her illness, the two take a walk and come across Rosamond Oliver, who talks with them for a while. Later, when Jane tries to confront him about his feelings for Ms. Oliver, St.John confesses he is indeed in love, but doubts of asking her hand in marriage ? John's show of emotion contrasts here to his usual frosty facade, as he thinks about what should be done and what he feels would work better. He doesn't follow his heart, however.
? Suspecting Jane?s true identity, St. John relates Jane‘s experiences at Thornfield to Jane and advises her that her uncle, John Eyre, has died and left her his fortune of 20,000 pounds. Jane confesses her true identity to St.John but then queries how St.John received information of her inheritance. St.John reveals that his uncle, who denied the Rivers children a share of his inheritance is in fact also Jane?s uncle. St.John, his sisters and Jane are cousins. Jane, overwhelmed at the prospect of such riches and adamant （财富）the situation is unjust, arranges to share her inheritance with the Rivers. ?
? St. John intends to travel to India to devote his life to missionary work. He asks Jane to accompany him as his wife. Jane consents to go to India but refuses to marry him as they are not in love. St. John continues to pressure Jane to marry him, and his forceful personality causes her to eventually capitulate. But at that moment she hears what she thinks is Rochester's voice calling her name
Chapters 36-38: Jane's reunion with Mr. Rochester
? The next day, Jane takes a coach to Thornfield. But only blackened ruins lie where the manor house once stood, An innkeeper tells Jane that Rochester's mad wife set the house alight and then committed suicide by jumping from the roof. Rochester rescued the servants from the burning mansion but lost a hand and his eyesight in the process of attempting to save his wife. He now lives in an isolated manor house called Ferndean. Going to Ferndean, Jane reunites with Rochester. when both reveal their feelings and Mr Rochester again proposes, Jane accepts him without hesitation. ? Rochester eventually recovers sight in one eye, and can see their first-born son when the baby is born.
Characters in the novel
? Jane Eyre: The protagonist 主人公and title character, orphaned as a baby. She is a plain-featured, small and reserved but talented, empathetic, hard-working, honest (not to say blunt), and passionate girl. Skilled at studying, drawing, and teaching, she works as a governess at Thornfield Hall and falls in love with her wealthy employer, Edward Rochester. But her strong sense of conscience does not permit her to become his mistress, and she does not return to him until his insane wife is dead and she herself has come into an inheritance. ? Mr. Reed: Jane?s maternal uncle（舅舅）. He adopts Jane when her parents die. Before his own death, he makes his wife promise to care for Jane. ? Mrs. Sarah Reed: Jane?s aunt （舅妈，妗子） at Gateshead. Because her husband insists, Mrs. Reed adopts Jane., Mrs. Reed dies of a stroke.
? John Reed: Mrs. Reed's son, and Jane's cousin.. He goes to college, ruining himself at Gateshead through gambling. Word comes of his death by suicide. ? Eliza Reed: Mrs. Reed's elder daughter, and Jane's cousin. Bitter because she is not as attractive as her sister, Georgiana Reed, she devotes herself selfrighteously to Catholicism. ? Georgiana Reed: Mrs. Reed?s younger daughter, and Jane‘s cousin. Though spiteful 不怀好意的and insolent傲 慢, she is indulged by everyone at Gateshead because of her beauty. In London, Lord Edwin Vere falls in love with her, but his relations are against their marriage. After Mrs. Reed's death, she marries a wealthy but wornout society man.
? Mr. Lloyd: A compassionate富于同情心 的 apothecary药剂师 who recommends that Jane be sent to school. Later, he writes a letter to Miss Temple confirming Jane's account of her childhood and thereby clearing Jane of Mrs. Reed's charge of lying.
? Mr. Brocklehurst: The clergyman who serves as headmaster and treasurer of Lowood School. His family leads an opulent (富裕的) lifestyle. At the same time, he preaches a doctrine of Christian austerity(苦行僧) and self-sacrifice to everyone in hearing. ? Miss Maria Temple: The kind, attractive young superintendent of Lowood School. She treats Jane and Helen with respect and compassion. ? Miss Scatcherd: A sour and vicious teacher at Lowood..
? Helen Burns: An angelic fellow-student and best friend of Jane?s at Lowood School. Several years older than the ten-year-old Jane, she stoically accepts all the cruelties of the teachers and the deficiencies of the school‘s room and board. She refuses to hate the tyrannical Mr. Brocklehurst or the vicious Miss Scatcherd, or to complain, believing in the New Testament teaching that one should love one?s enemies and turn the other cheek(逆来顺受) . dies of consumption（伤寒） in Jane's arms.
? Edward Fairfax Rochester: The owner of Thornfield Manor, and Jane?s lover and eventual husband. He possesses a strong physique and great wealth, but his face is very plain and his moods prone to frequent change. Impetuous（易冲动的 ）and sensual, he falls madly in love with Jane because her simplicity, bluntness, intellectual capacity and plainness contrast so much with those of the shallow society women to whom he is accustomed. But his unfortunate marriage to the maniacal Bertha Mason postpones his union with Jane, and he loses a hand and his eyesight while trying to rescue his mad wife after she sets a fire that burns down Thornfield. He is a Byronic hero.
? Adèle Varens: A naive, vivacious and rather spoiled French child to whom Jane is governess at Thornfield. She is Rochester's ward because her mother, Céline Varens, an opportunistic French opera singer and dancer, was Rochester's mistress. Rochester does not believe himself to be Adèle's father: Céline had other lovers, ? Bertha Mason: The violently insane （疯子） secret wife of Edward Rochester. She escapes four times during the novel , the fourth time actually burning it down and taking her own life in the process.
? Mrs. Alice Fairfax: An elderly widow and housekeeper of Thornfield Manor. She treats Jane kindly and respectfully, but disapproves of her engagement to Mr Rochester. ? Blanche Ingram: A beautiful but self-absorbed, cruel and shallow socialite whom Mr. Rochester appears to court in order to make Jane jealous. ? Richard Mason: A strangely blank-eyed but handsome Englishman from the West Indies, he stops Jane and Rochester's wedding with the proclamation that Rochester is still married to Bertha Mason, his sister. ? life
? St. John Eyre Rivers: A clergyman who is Jane Eyre?s cousin （堂兄）on her father‘s side. He is a devout（虔诚的）, almost fanatical Christian of Calvinistic leanings（教派）. ? Diana and Mary Rivers: St. John's sisters and Jane's cousins, they are kind and intellectual young women who contrive to lead an independent life
? Grace Poole: Bertha Mason?s keeper, a frumpish邋遢的 woman verging on middle age. She drinks gin酒 immoderately, occasionally giving her maniacal charge疯 子 a chance to escape.. ? Rosamond Oliver: The rather shallow and coquettish（妖艳的） , but beautiful and good-natured daughter of Morton's richest man. St. John refuses to let himself love her, she in time becomes engaged to the wealthy Mr. Granby.
? John Eyre: Jane's paternal uncle, who leaves her his vast fortune of 20,000 pounds. He never appears as a character. He is also St. John's Maternal Uncle and leaves him and his sisters 31 pounds and 10 shillings (i.e. 30 guineas) as a result. Jane divides her 20,000 pounds amongst the four of them (St. John, Mary, Diana and herself) leaving each with 5,000 pounds.
? Jane refuses to become Rochester?s paramour because of her ―impassioned（过激的 ）self-respect and moral conviction." She rejects St. John Rivers' Puritanism as much as Rochester's libertinism. Instead, she works out a morality expressed in love, independence, and forgiveness. Specifically, she forgives her cruel aunt and loves Rochester, but never surrenders her independence to him. He is blind, and thus more dependent on her than she on him. ? Ultimately, she rejects extremes and finds a middle ground in which religion serves to curb her immoderate passions but does not repress her true self.
? Jane?s ambiguous social position—a penniless yet learned orphan from a good family—leads her to criticise discrimination （歧视）based on class. Although she is educated, well-mannered, and relatively sophisticated, she is still a governess, a paid servant of low social standing, and therefore powerless. Nevertheless, Bront? possesses certain class prejudices herself, as is made clear when Jane has to remind herself that her unsophisticated village pupils at Morton ―are of flesh and blood as good as the scions后 裔 of gentlest genealogy高贵基因."
? A particularly important theme in the novel is patriarchalism家长制 and Jane's efforts to assert her own identity within male-dominated society. Three of the main male characters, Brocklehurst, Rochester and St. John, try to keep Jane in a subordinate position and prevent her from expressing her own thoughts and feelings. Jane escapes Brocklehurst and rejects St. John, and she only marries Rochester once she is sure that theirs is a marriage between equals. Through Jane, Bront? refutes Victorian stereotypes about women, articulating her own feminist philosophy:
? Women are supposed to be very calm generally: but women feel just as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties, and a field for their efforts as much as their brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a restraint, too absolute a stagnation（地位停滞）.
? The early sequences, in which Jane is sent to Lowood, a harsh boarding school, are derived from the author's own experiences. ? Helen Burns's death from tuberculosis (referred to as consumption) recalls the deaths of Charlotte Bront?'s sisters Elizabeth and Maria, who died of the disease in childhood as a result of the conditions at their school, the Clergy Daughters School at Cowan Bridge, near Tunstall, Lancashire. ? Mr. Brocklehurst is based on Rev. William Carus Wilson (1791–1859), the Evangelical minister who ran the school, and Helen Burns is likely modelled on Charlotte's sister Maria.
? Additionally, John Reed?s decline into alcoholism and dissolution（暴死） recalls the life of Charlotte's brother Branwell, who became an opium and alcohol addict in the years preceding his death. Finally, like Jane, Charlotte becomes a governess. These facts were revealed to the public in The Life of Charlotte Bront?(1857) by Charlotte's friend and fellow novelist Elizabeth Gaskell.
? The Gothic manor of Thornfield was probably inspired by North Lees Hall, near Hathersage in the Peak District. This was visited by Charlotte Bront? and her friend Ellen Nussey in the summer of 1845 and is described by the latter in a letter dated 22 July 1845. It was the residence of the Eyre family, and its first owner, Agnes Ashurst, was reputedly confined as a lunatic（疯 子） in a padded second floor room.
? Silent film versions Jane Eyre were released; one in 1910, two in 1914. ? 1915: Jane Eyre . ? 1915: called The Castle of Thornfield. ? 1918: A version was released called Woman and Wife. ? 1921: Jane Eyre starring Mabel Ballin. ? 1926: made in Germany called Orphan of Lowood.
Motion picture versions
? 1934: Jane Eyre, starring Colin Clive and Virginia Bruce.
? *****1944: Jane Eyre, with a screenplay by John Houseman and Aldous Huxley. It features Orson Welles as Rochester, Joan Fontaine as Jane, Margaret O'Brien as Adele and Elizabeth Taylor as Helen Burns.
? 1956: A version was made in Hong Kong called The Orphan Girl. ? 1963: A version was released in Mexico called El Secreto (English: "The Secret").
? 1970: Jane Eyre, starring George C. Scott as Rochester and Susannah York as Jane. ? 1972: An adaptation in Telugu, Shanti Nilayam, directed by C. Vaikuntarama Sastry, starring Anjali Devi. ? 1973: BBC miniseries starring Sorcha Cusack as Jane Eyre and Michael Jayston as Rochester ? 1978: A version was released in Mexico called Ardiente Secreto (English: "Ardent Secret").
? 1983: BBC series starring Timothy Dalton as Rochester and Zelah Clarke as Jane. ? 1996: Jane Eyre, directed by Franco Zeffirelli and starring William Hurt as Rochester, Charlotte Gainsbourg as Jane ? 1997: Directed by Robert Young, starring Ciaran Hinds as Rochester and Samantha Morton as Jane Eyre.
1996: Jane Eyre
? 1996: Jane Eyre, directed by Franco Zeffirelli and starring William Hurt as Rochester, Charlotte Gainsbourg as Jane
母亲是英国女演员简· 伯金，父亲是法国著名歌手和演员赛 吉· 甘斯布。接受钢琴启蒙后，甘布斯曾向往绘画职业， 直到12岁登台表演才改变初衷。甘布斯14岁时因在《不安 分的姑娘》中感人至深的表演而成为恺撒奖的最具前途女 演员，随后又于1989和1997年两获恺撒最佳女演员提名， 2000年终于夺得恺撒最佳女配角奖。2003年，她还出现 在《21克》中，扮演西恩· 潘的妻子。 ? 在美女众多的法国影坛，夏洛特· 甘斯布容貌平凡， 甚至有些沧桑，有些憔悴，却受到许多著名导演的青睐， 更赢得了广大法国影迷的喜爱，诚如一位影迷的评述：她 散发出一种的独特气质，这种气质超出任何语言的形容， 不可类比，无可替代，那是一种先验的神秘的力量，一个 神话。她经常和别人说的一句话是：“我喜欢扮演不同的 角色，这样可以把自己掩藏在这些角色后面。”
? 男孩和他的鞋子 (2010)
? 反基督者 (2009) ? 迫害 (2009)
? 爱格尼斯的海滩 (2008 ? 终极城市 (2007)
? 21克 (2003) ? 悲惨世界 (2000)
? 纽伦堡审判 (2000)
? 简爱 (1996)
? 爱是…… (1996) ? 赛门花园 (1993)
? 爱人 (1992) ? 感谢你生活 (1991)
? ? ? ?
子夜的太阳 (1990) 小女贼 (1988) 不安分的姑娘 (1985) 对话与音乐 (1984)
Charlotte Gainsbourg 的歌曲
? 法国音乐家女演员Charlotte Gainsbourg 的第二张专辑，忧伤,迷幻， 深情。 01. 5:55 02. AF607105 03. The Operation 04. Tel Que Tu Es 05. The Songs That We Sing 06. Beauty Mark 07. Little Monsters 08. Jamais 09. Night-Time Intermission 10. Everything I Cannot See 11. Morning Song 12. Set Yourself On Fire (bonus track) 13. Somewhere Between Waking And Sleeping (bonus track)
? 我很喜欢威廉· 赫特的表演，他有着美国演员身上所没有 的绅士风度，同样是美国演员，４４版的奥逊· 威尔斯和 ７０版的乔治· 斯科特都缺少这种气质。威廉· 赫特的个人 魅力很强，虽然他的外貌完全不符合书中人物，但他却用 自己独特的气质诠释了这个人物，他的表演并不很用力， 却举重若轻，同样让我信服。如果说奥逊· 威尔斯表现出 了罗切斯特身上激情狂野的一面，乔治· 斯科特表现出了 罗切斯特颓废和疲惫的一面，威廉· 赫特则表现出了一个 善良，忧郁，理性与知性的罗切斯特，把他们综合起来应 该就是书中的那个罗切斯特。但是以电影这个有限的表现 时间与空间来说，能够展现出这个复杂人物的一面应该算 是成功的了。
? 从第一次看它起就非常喜欢它，从改编到表演到场景到音 乐，我认为都超出了它的前作。整部影片淡雅隽永，抛弃 了４４版的哥特式风格和７０版的阴郁底色，象它的主题 曲一样清新缠绵又略带一丝忧伤。我建议大家有机会的话 好好听听这部电影的主题曲。 我不反对影片对原著的改编，无论是８３版电视剧的 完全忠实原著还是几个电影版本在原著基础上的加工，都 带来了不同的观赏视角和不同感受，这些未尝不是对原著 的一种丰富。之所以喜欢９６版就是因为它在改编方面有 自己独到的地方。如它对罗切斯特的交待就比前两个版本 流畅自然，先通过费尔法克斯太太之口交待出他小时候本 是个和善的孩子，之所以性格变得古怪是因为承担了本不 该由他承担的家族责任。而他是个“有责任感的人”，这 也说明了他为什么收养阿黛尔。阿黛尔这个角色在这部电 影里也不再仅仅是个摆设，通过罗切斯特对阿黛尔先粗暴 后怜惜的情感变化说明了简的善良和爱情对他潜移默化的 影响，是简让他找回了善良的自我。对费尔法克斯太太也
? 演员的整体表演很好。配角出色，除了因为此片 获得奥斯卡奖的安娜· 麦奎因之外，象里德舅妈， 桑菲尔德府众女眷都表现得既虚伪又充满贵族气 质。费尔法克斯太太颇具贵族府邸管家的大家风 范，小阿黛尔既甜美又可爱，这是我在别的版本 里没有见到的。 夏洛蒂· 冈斯博格的简爱既有着年轻姑娘特有 的清新，又有着角色赋予这个角色的独立和坚毅， 不足的是整体表现过于偏冷
? 夏洛蒂· 冈斯博格的表演很符合我对简的设想，他 们的那个时代，那个时代女教师所处的地位，都 会使简在外表、行动上显的低调，不会过多的流 露自己的感情。我就觉得83版的简演的过于活泼， 而且83简的脸部表情演的太模糊，关键时刻观众 看不到想要的效果 ? 在那个年代，那个地位的家庭女教师是不会太张 扬的，尤其是象简这样一个很早就尝过人生波折 的人，而且在书中也一再强调简是谨守自己身份 和地位的人。
William McGill Hurt
? William McGill Hurt (born March 20, 1950) is an American actor. He received his acting training at the Juilliard School, and began acting on stage in the 1970s. Hurt made his film debut as a troubled scientist in the science-fiction feature Altered States (1980), for which he received a Golden Globe nomination for New Star of the Year. He subsequently played the leading role of a sleazy lawyer in the wellreceived film noir Body Heat (1981).
Award for Best Actor
? In 1985, Hurt garnered substantial critical acclaim and multiple acting awards, including an Academy and a BAFTA Award for Best Actor, for portraying an effeminate homosexual in Kiss of the Spider Woman. He went on to receive another two Academy Award nominations for his lead performances in Children of a Lesser God (1986) and Broadcast News (1987). Hurt remained an active stage actor throughout the 1980s, appearing in numerous Off-Broadway productions including Henry V, Fifth of July, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. Hurt received his first Tony Award nomination in 1985 for the Broadway production of Hurlyburly.
his fourth Academy Award nomination
? After playing a diversity of character roles in the following decade, Hurt earned his fourth Academy Award nomination for his supporting performance in David Cronenberg?s crime thriller A History of Violence (2005). Other notable films in recent years have included A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001), Syriana (2005), The Good Shepherd (2006), Mr. Brooks (2007), Into the Wild (2007), The Incredible Hulk (2008), and Robin Hood (2010）
? That‘s all for the introduction.