温家宝哈佛演讲全文/中英文版 CHN/ENG 先看英文吧 Remarks of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao: 'Turning Your Eyes to China' Harvard University Dec. 10, 2003 DEAN KIM CLARK: It's a great pleasure and a privilege to welcome you here today to this historic occasion. On behalf of the faculty and the staff and the students of the Harvard Business School I welcome all of you to our campus. We're certainly pleased to have Premier Wen here today on this great occasion. It's my good fortune to be able to introduce to you today my good friend, Bill Kirby, who is Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Bill. DEAN KIRBY: Thank you very much, Kim. The Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard joins in welcoming all of you and our distinguished guests from the People's Republic of China. Today is a very important occasion, an opportunity for dialogue between members of the Harvard community and the leader of one of the most rapidly transforming and transformative countries in the world, whose future is closely intertwined with our own. And in this global era, universities serve an increasingly important function. We are points of connection and communication between citizens of different regions of the world. Harvard is honored to welcome Premier Wen and his delegation. As the first line of "The Analects" tells us, "How very glad we are to welcome friends from afar." Our guest speaker today is, as you know, the Premier of the People's Republic of China, Premier Wen Jiabao. Seated to the Premier's left is Mr. Li Zhaoxing, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic. Next to Minister Li is Ma Kai, Minister of the National Development and Reform Commission. To Mr. Ma Kai's left is Mr. Wei Liqun, who is Director of the Research Office of the State Council. And seated next to the Director is the Honorable Yang Jiechi, the Ambassador of the People's Republic of China to the United States. And let me introduce the gentleman to my right. We have already had the pleasure of hearing from Dean Kim Clark of the Harvard Business School. And the gentleman to his right, Professor Dwight Perkins, the Director of the Harvard University Asia Center. To Professor Perkins' right is Professor Wilt Edema, Director of Harvard's Fairbank Center for East Asian Research, and to his right is the Honorable Clark Randt, the United States Ambassador to the People's Republic of China. Welcome, Ambassador Grant. Thank you all for coming, and may I now introduce our next speaker, ladies and gentlemen, the President of Harvard University, Lawrence Summers. PRESIDENT SUMMERS: Thanks very much, Bill. On a day like this I am particularly glad to have a distinguished scholar of Chinese history as the Dean of our Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Premier Wen, we are honored to have you here today. On behalf of the entire Harvard community and especially the 350 Chinese students at Harvard, and the nearly 500 scholars, teachers and professors at Harvard, I am delighted to welcome you to our university. When the history of our era is written a century or two from now I suspect that the end of the Cold War, the fall of the Berlin Wall, may be the second story in that history. The first story in that history may be the dramatic developments on the Asian continent over the last quarter century and the next, and at the center
of that story is your country, China. This is surely a moment of promise, of risk, and of opportunity in China. And our distinguished speaker, Wen Jiabao, is poised to lead China into a new era with great potential for growth and prosperity. A geologist by training and an experienced public servant over more than three decades, Premier Wen has the very well-established reputation of being a very able and very well-trusted statesman. He and I had a chance to meet, it was my very great privilege to meet with him, when I traveled to China several years ago on behalf of the U.S. government, and I am now delighted to welcome to Harvard University Premier Wen. Premier Wen, we look forward to your remarks. PREMIER WEN: Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen. I would like to begin by sincerely thanking President Summers for his kind invitation. Harvard is a world famous institution of higher learning, attracting the best minds and bringing them up generation after generation. In its 367 years of history, Harvard has produced seven American presidents and more than 40 Nobel Laureates. You have reason to be proud of your university. It is my great pleasure today to stand on your rostrum and have this face-to-face exchange with you. I like young people very much. Because young people are always so energetic and they have the least conservative ideas, and they represent the future of our world. And this year during the outbreak of the SARS epidemic, I thought about the students. I cared a lot for them, and I wanted to gain strength from them. So that was why I went to our Tsinghua University to have lunch with them. And also I went to Beijing University and I had a chat with the students in the library. At that time probably you could not have imagined what an atmosphere we were in, but I felt that the young people were as hopeful as ever. They always dream about a beautiful future. They pointed to the trees outside the window and said to me, "People like to say that when all the leaves grow, when the tree becomes green all over, this crisis will be over. And they also said that they would all rather be the green leaves themselves, and they asked me, Premier, in this big tree, which part of the tree are you? I immediately replied, "I'm also one of the leaves like you." I think the developments proved to be like they predicted. When spring came back, when the trees became green, this outbreak was driven away. As the speaker today, of course I think I need to explain myself a little bit to my audience, and I owe you this because in this way we can have a heart-to-heart discussion. As you know, as you probably know, I'm the son of a schoolteacher. I spent my childhood mostly in the smoke and fire of war. I was not as fortunate as you as a child. When Japanese aggressors drove all the people in my place to the Central Plaza, I had to huddle closely against my mother. Later on, my whole family and house were all burned up, and even the primary school that my grandpa built himself all went up in flames. In my work life, most of the time I worked in areas under the most harsh conditions in China. Therefore I know my country and my people quite well and I love them so deeply. The title of my speech today is "Turning Your Eyes To China." China and the United States are far apart, and they differ, they differ greatly in the level of economic development and culture. [At this point a protester interrupted.] Please allow me to continue with my speech. Ladies and gentlemen, I will not be
disrupted. Because I'm deeply convinced that the 300 million American people do have friendly feelings towards the Chinese people. And I'm deeply convinced the development and improvement of China-U.S. relations will not only serve the interests of our two peoples but is also conducive to peace and stability of the whole world. I know that China and the United States are far apart geographically and they differ greatly in the level of economic development and a cultural background. I hope my speech will help increase our mutual understanding. In order to understand the true China, a changing society full of promises, it is necessary to get to know her yesterday, her today, and her tomorrow. China yesterday was a big ancient country that created a splendid civilization. As we all know in history of mankind there appeared the Mesopotamian civilization in West Asia, the ancient Egyptian civilization along the Nile in North Africa, the ancient Greek-Roman civilization along the northern bank of the Mediterranean, the ancient Indian civilization in the Indus River Valley in South Asia, and the Chinese civilization originating in the Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys. Owing to earthquake, flood, plague and famine, or to alien invasion or internal turmoil, some of these ancient civilizations withered away, some were destroyed and others became assimilated into other civilizations. Only the Chinese civilization, thanks to its strong cohesive power and inexhaustible appeal, has survived many vicissitudes intact. The 5,000-year-long civilization is the source of pride of every Chinese. The traditional Chinese culture, both extensive and profound, starts far back and runs a long, long course. More than 2,000 years ago there emerged in China Confucianism represented by Confucius and Mencius. Taoism, represented by Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, and many other theories and doctrines that figured prominently in the history of Chinese thought, all being covered by the famous term, "the masters' hundred schools." From Confucius to Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the traditional Chinese culture presents many precious ideas and qualities, which are essentially populist and democratic. For example, they lay stress on the importance of kindness and love in human relations, on the interest of the community, on seeking harmony without uniformity and on the idea that the world is for all. Especially, patriotism as embodied in the saying, "everybody is responsible for the rise or fall of the country;" the populist ideas that, people are the foundation of the country and that people are more important than the monarch; the code of conduct of, don't do to others what you don't want others to do to you; and the traditional virtues taught from generation to generation: long suffering and hard working diligence and frugality in household management, and respecting teachers and valuing education. All these have played a great role in binding and regulating the family, the country and the society. On this year's Teacher's Day, which fell on the 10th of September, I specially went to see Professor Ji Xianlin of Peking University in his hospital ward. Professor Ji, 92 years old, is a great scholar in both Chinese and Western learning, and specializing in Oriental studies. I enjoy reading his prose. And he had a very good habit that is even in his hospital he would keep a journal, in fact a very beautiful essay about what he saw and did and felt for that particular day. And he studied a special Oriental language and probably he is among the very
few in the world who actually knows this language. In our conversation we talked about the movement of Eastern learning spreading to the West, and also Western learning spreading to the East in modern times. In the 17th and 18th centuries, foreign missionaries translated Chinese classics into European languages and introduced them to Europe, and this aroused great interest in some eminent scholars and enlightenment thinkers there. Among them, Descartes, Leibniz, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Goethe and Kant all studied the traditional Chinese culture. In my younger days I read Voltaire's writings. He said that a thinker who wanted to study the history of this planet should first turn his eyes to the East, China included. He once said that when people in many other countries are debating about the origin of the human species the Chinese are already seriously writing about their history. Interestingly, one and a half centuries ago, R.W. Emerson, a famous American philosopher and outstanding Harvard graduate, also fell for the traditional Chinese culture. He quoted profusely from Confucius and Mencius in his essays. He placed Confucius on a par with Socrates and Jesus Christ, saying that we read the moral teachings of the Confucius school with profit today, though they were addressed to a state of society unlike ours. Rereading these words of Voltaire and Emerson today, I cannot but admire their wisdom and far sight. China today is a country in reform and opening up, and a rising power dedicated to peace. The late Dr. John King Fairbank used the following words to describe China's overpopulation and land scarcity. On the land owned by one farmer in the U.S., there might live hundreds of people forming a village in China. He went on to say that although the Americans were mostly farmers in the past, they never felt such pressure of population density. A large population and underdevelopment are the two facts China has to face. Since China has 1.3 billion people, I often like to say, I often like to make a very easy but at the same time very complicated division and multiplication. That is, any small individual problem multiplied by 1.3 billion becomes a big, big problem. And any considerable amount of financial and material resources divided by 1.3 billion becomes a very low per capita level. And becomes really small. This is a reality the Chinese leaders have to keep firmly in mind at all times. We can rely on no one else except ourselves to resolve the problems facing our 1.3 billion people. Since the founding of the People's Republic, we have achieved much in our national reconstruction. At the same time we have made a few detours and missed some opportunities. By 1978, with the adoption of the reform and opening up policies, we had ultimately found the right path of development. The Chinese people's path of independently building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The essence of this path of development is to mobilize all positive factors, emancipate and develop the productive forces, and respect and protect the freedom of the Chinese people to pursue happiness. China's reform and opening up have spread from rural areas to the cities, from the economic field to the political, cultural, and social arenas. Each and every step forward is designed in the final analysis to release the gushing vitality of labor, knowledge, technology, managerial expertise and capital, and allow all sources of
social wealth to flow to the fullest extent. For quite some time in the past, China had a structure of highly centralized planned economy. With deepening restructuring towards the socialist market economy and progress in a development of democratic politics, there was gradual lifting of the former improper restrictions, visible and invisible, on people's freedom in the choice of occupation, mobility, enterprise, investment, information, travel, faith and lifestyles. This has brought extensive and profound changes never seen before in China's history. On one hand, the enthusiasm of the work force in both cities and countryside has been set free. In particular, hundreds of millions of farmers are now able to leave their old villages and move into towns and the cities, especially in the coastal areas. And tens of millions of intellectuals are now able to bring their talent and creativity into full play. On the other hand, the massive assets owned by the state can now be revitalized. A private capital pool in the amount of trillions of yuan can take shape, and more than 500 billion U.S. dollars' worth of overseas capital can flow in. This combination of capital and labor results in a drama of industrialization and urbanization of a size rarely seen in human history being staged on 9.6 million square kilometers of land called China. Here lies the secret of the 9.4 percent annual growth rate that Chinese economy has been able to maintain in the past 25 years. The tremendous wealth created by China in the past quarter of a century has not only enabled our 1.3 billion countrymen to meet their basic needs for food, clothing and shelter and basically realize a modestly comfortable standard of living but also contributed to world development. China owes all this progress to the policy of reform and opening up and in the final analysis to the freedominspired creativity of the Chinese people. It has become so clear to me that, at the current stage, China has an abundant supply of labor in proportion to her limited natural resources and short capital. If no effective measures are taken to protect the fundamental rights of our massive labor force, and in particular the farmer workers coming to the cities, they may end up a miserable plight as described in the novels by Charles Dickens and Theodore Dreiser. Without effective protection of the citizens' rights to property, it will be difficult to attract and accumulate valuable capital. Therefore the Chinese government is committed to protecting the fundamental rights of all the working and the right to property, both public and private. This has been explicitly provided for in China's laws and put into practice. China's reform and opening-up is exactly aimed at promoting human rights in China. The two are mutually dependent and reinforcing. Reform and opening-up creates conditions for the advancement of human rights, and the advancement of human rights invigorates the former. If one separates the two and thinks that China only goes after economic growth and ignores the protection of human rights, such a view does not square with the facts. Just as President FDR said, true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence, and necessitous men are not free men. I am not suggesting that China's human rights situation is impeccable. The Chinese government has all along been making earnest efforts to correct the malpractices and negative factors of one kind or another in the human rights field. It is extremely important and difficult in China to combine development, reform and stability. Seeing is believing. If our friends come to China and see for
themselves, they will be able to judge objectively and appreciate the progress made there in human rights and the Chinese government's hard work in upholding human rights since the beginning of reform and opening-up. China is a large developing country. It is neither proper nor possible for us to rely on foreign countries for development. We must and we can only rely on our own efforts. In other words, while opening still wider to the outside world, we must more fully and more consciously depend on our own structural innovation, on constantly expanding the domestic market, on converting the huge savings of our citizens into investment, and on improving the quality of the population and scientific and technological progress to solve the problems of resources and the environment. Here lies the essence of China's relative peaceful rise and development. Of course, China is still a developing country. There is an obvious gap between its urban and rural areas and between its eastern and western regions. If you travel to the coastal cities in China's southeast, you will see modern size skyscrapers, busy traffic, and brightly lit streets. But that is not what China is all about. In vast rural areas of China, especially in the central and western rural parts, there are still many backward places. Not long ago, Secretary Evans of Commerce had a talk with me about China/U.S. economic relations and trade. Before he met with me he went to see some rural areas in China's west and in our meeting he showed me two pictures he shot in his visit and reflected the state of backwardness in those quarters. And in fact he felt strongly about what he saw. He said that he would never forget the people that he met within that trip. I said to him that out of the total of 2,500 counties in China I have personally been to 1,800 of them and I've been to the poorest areas in China. I said to him that what you saw in fact is not the poorest of areas and I said that if you can see what China really is then our discussion today would be very easy. And our conversation did indeed turn out to be very interesting and useful. In those poor and remote mountain villages folks still use manual labor and animals to till the land. They live in houses made of sun-dried mud bricks. In times of severe drought there will be scarcity of drinking water for people and animals. I often remember in my mind two lines from a poem written by Mr. Chen Banjao in 18th century. That is:
The rustling of bamboo outside my door Sounds like the moaning of the needy poor. As the premier of China I'm often torn with anxiety and unable to eat or sleep with ease when I think of the fact that there are still 30 million farmers lacking food, clothing and shelter, 23 million city dwellers living on subsistence allowances and 60 million disabled and handicapped people in need of social security aid. For China to reach the level of developed countries it will still take the sustained hard work of several generations, a dozen generations or even dozens of generations. China tomorrow will continue to be a major country that loves peace and has a great deal to look forward. Peace loving has been a time-honored quality of the Chinese nation. The very first emperor of the Qin Dynasty commanded the building of the Great Wall 2,000 years ago for defense purposes. The Tang Dynasty opened up the Silk Road one thousand years ago in order to sell silk, tea and porcelain to
other parts of the world. Five hundred years ago, Zheng He, the famous diplomat navigator of the Ming Dynasty, led seven maritime expeditions to seek friendly ties with other countries, taking along China's exquisite products, advanced farming and handicraft skills. The great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy once called the Chinese nation the oldest and largest nation, and, the most peace-loving nation in the world. As the modern times began, the ignorance, corruption and self-imposed seclusion of the feudal dynasties led China to prolonged social stagnation, declining national strength and repeated invasions by the foreign powers. Despite compounded disasters and humiliation, the Chinese nation never gave up, and managed to emerge from each setback stronger than before. A nation learns a lot more in times of disaster and setback than in normal times. Now, China has laid down her three-step strategy towards modernization. From now to the year 2020, China will complete the building of a comfortable society in an all-round way. By 2049, the year the People's Republic will celebrate its centenary, we will have reached the level of a medium-developed country. We have no illusions but believe that on our way forward, we shall encounter many difficulties foreseeable and unpredictable and face all kinds of tough challenges. We cannot afford to lose such a sense of crisis. Of course, the Chinese government and people are confident enough to overcome all the difficulties and achieve our ambitious goals through our vigorous efforts. This is because the overriding trend of the present-day world is towards peace and development. China's development is blessed with a rare period of strategic opportunities. And if we don't grasp it, it will slip away. We are determined to secure a peaceful international environment and a stable domestic environment in which to concentrate on our own development, and with it to help promote world peace and development. This is because the socialism China adheres to is brimming with vigor and vitality. From the day when I became Prime Minister, I made an analogy. I said that socialism is like an ocean that takes in all the rivers and will never go dry. While planting our feet solidly on our national conditions we will boldly press ahead with reform and opening-up, and boldly absorb all fine achievements of human civilizations. There is no limit to the life and exuberance of a socialism that is good at self-readjustment and self-improvement. This is because 25 years of reform and opening-up has given China a considerable material accumulation, and her economy has gained a foothold in the world. The motivation of China's millions to pursue happiness and create wealth is an inexhaustible reservoir of drive for the country's modernization. This is because the Chinese nation has rich and profound cultural reserves. Harmony without uniformity is a great idea put forth by ancient Chinese thinkers. It means harmony without sameness, and difference without conflict. Harmony entails co-existence and co-prosperity, while difference conduces to mutual complementation and mutual support. To approach and address issues from such a perspective will not only help enhance relations with friendly countries, but also serve to resolve contradictions in the international community. Ladies and Gentlemen, A deeper mutual American people, young people in this also trust that our young people will The United States is a great country. understanding is a two-way process. I hope country, will turn their eyes to China. I turn their eyes more to the United States. Since the days of the early settlers the
Americans with their toughness, frontier spirit, pragmatism, innovation, and their respect for knowledge, admission of talents, their scientific tradition and rule of law, have forged the prosperity of this country. The composure, courage and readiness to help one another shown by the American people in the face of the September 11th terrorist attacks are truly admirable. Entering the 21st century, mankind is confronted with more complicated economic and social problems. The cultural element will have a more important role to play in the new century. Different nations may speak different languages, but the people's hearts and feelings are interlinked. Different cultures may present manifold features, yet they often share the same rational core elements that can always be passed on by people. The civilizations of different nations are all fruits of human wisdom and contribution to human progress; they call for mutual respect. Conflicts triggered by ignorance or prejudice are sometimes more dreadful than those caused by contradictory interests. We propose to seek common in a spirit of equality and tolerance, and carry on extensive inter-civilization dialogue and closer cultural exchanges. In his poem, "Malvern Hill," the famous American poet Herman Melville wrote:
Wag the world how it will. Leaves must be green in Spring. The youth represents the future of the nation and the world. Faced with the bright prospect of China-U.S. relations in the new century, I hope the young people of China and the young people of the United States will join their hands more closely. Ladies and Gentlemen, Chinese forefathers formulated their goals as follows:
To To To To
ordain conscience for Heaven and Earth. secure life and fortune for the people. continue lost teachings for past sages. establish peace for all future generations.
Today, mankind is in the middle of a period of drastic social change. It would be a wise approach for all countries to carry forward their fine cultural heritages by tracing back their origin, passing on the essentials, learning from one another and breaking new ground. My appeal is that we work together with our wisdom and strength for the progress and development of human civilization. Our success will do credit to our forbears and bring benefit to our posterity. In this way, our children and their children will be able to live in a more peaceful, more tranquil and more prosperous world. I am convinced that such an immensely bright and beautiful tomorrow will arrive. Thank you for your attention. Now I'll be happy to take questions from you. You may raise your hands. DEAN KIRBY: Thank you, Premier Wen, for your wide ranging and very interesting historical perspective. And as a historian I have many questions I would like to ask you, but it's not my turn. We have several questions that have been submitted by our students, and I just have to tell you that students ask much harder
questions than deans. So if I may read you one question that has been submitted by our students. Premier Wen, what do you feel are the prospects for democracy in China? Do you envisage any changes in the role of the Communist Party? For example, do you envisage contested direct elections for township, county, and provincial governments? PREMIER WEN: There's no question that to develop democracy, the objective of our endeavor, all our efforts will be aimed at building China into a prosperous, democratic, civilized and modern country. We once said that without democracy there will be no socialism. To develop socialist democracy some specific measures will have to be taken. First, we need to improve the election system. Just now you mentioned election in China. Among China's 680,000 villages we carry out direct election for the Villager's Committee. And direct/indirect election is carried out at counties and the municipalities where they don't have districts. And we also have indirect election for officials at provincial and central level. Because conditions are not ripe yet for direct election of senior officials, China is such a big country and our economic development is so uneven, to start with I think the educational level of the population is not high enough. Second, we should let the people supervise the work of the government and be critical of the performance of the government. Only when we allow the people to supervise the performance of the government, the government cannot afford to slack in its efforts in serving the people. And only when the government accepts the criticism from the public we can ensure the success of all policy. In China it would be a time-consuming process to develop China's democracy perfectly. But if you look at the U.S. history it is also time consuming for U.S. to develop its democracy from the days of the Declaration of Independence in the year 1776 to the Civil War in 1860s, and to the incidents of Martin Luther King in the 1960s. Just now in the speech I quoted President Roosevelt. He said the necessitous men were not free men. In fact in preparing his Declaration of Independence President Jefferson also placed the right to development before anything else. President Jefferson put the right to life before anything else. So we need to work to improve the living standards of 1.3 billion Chinese people. This is a big challenge ahead. Thank you. People sometimes have mixed feelings about giving a speech in Harvard. They like to come here very much because Harvard is so famous as a gathering place of the best brains in the world. But at the same time they also feel afraid because they know from the faculty and students there will be touch questions. Before I arrived here I kept recalling one remark my mother always said to me. According to my mother a person should try to be truthful, honest, sincere and candid. If a people can reach these standards then he will find himself with a very highest state of mind. I may not be able to give you good answers, yet I always speak from my mind and tell you the truth. DEAN KIRBY: A question from the floor. Yes ma'am.
WOMAN: My name is Changju. I'm from the Harvard School of Education, and I came here two years ago. I got my Bachelor of Arts degree from Beijing University, from the English Department. And my question is, we are very excited that Beijing is going to host the 2008 Olympic Games, and when Premier Wen has said that we're going to do our best to host the Olympic Games, so I was wondering what kind of aspects are you talking about. Thank you. PREMIER WEN: It seems that she is more nervous than I am. I don't know about the audience if there are more Chinese students or more American students. But since you mentioned the Olympic Games that is to be hosted by China, it reminds me of a sad story in the past. Before China was liberated, before PRC was founded in '49, we at that time were only able to send one athlete by name of Yo Jangjin, he was a short distance runner, to participate in the Olympic Games. The game was held in the United States so he took a ship and had a long journey. He was already exhausted after the long journey when he reached the United States. He was the only representative of China in the Olympic Games. He did not win any medal but he had the support and attention and care of the entire Chinese population. Now it's a different story. The Olympic Games is going to be held in China. This is because China has developed itself to a great extent, and China already has the respect of the international community. I said we will stage an excellent game in China. This will mean that it will be of very high standard. But at the same time I have to say that China is still a developing country. We have to practice economy. We cannot squander the resources away. Thank you. DEAN KIRBY: The gentleman far up in the white shirt, there sir? MAN: I hope it's OK if I speak in English for this question. You mentioned in your visit with President Bush a couple of days ago that you are hoping to encourage American imports into China to balance the trade deficit. And I was wondering what steps China will be taking to encourage American imports into China. PREMIER WEN: Indeed the Americans have a strong interest in seeing more U.S. products to be sold in Chinese market. And I also discussed this with President Bush yesterday. It will be fair to draw attention to the fact that in recent two years the U.S. export to China has grown. Last year while the U.S. export to the rest of the world grew at a rate of only two to three percent, U.S. export to China grew by 15 percent. And the first 10 months of this year U.S. export to China grew by 26 percent. We have to recognize the fact that in the trade relationship United States does run a quite significant deficit with China. I had a very good discussion with President Bush. The two of us did not get bogged down on the small details, so precisely as described by the famous poem in China, was the ascent to the top of the Mountain Tai, where the other peaks are simply dwarfed. I proposed to President Bush five principles on further expansion of our economic cooperation in trade. And the first principle is mutual benefits and a win-win situation. We need to think broadly. Each side must take into account the interests of the other side. Second, we need to find a solution to the trade imbalance problem through the expansion of trade. To cut back China's export to the U.S. market is not a good solution. The better solution is for U.S. to increase its export to China.
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接着中文的 中国总理温家宝美国 时间 10 日上午在美国哈佛大学商 学院发表演讲,演讲的题目是《把 目光投向中国》,凤凰网根据现场 录音整理全文如下: 女士们,先生们,校长,我一开 始要非常感谢哈佛校长的邀请,哈 佛是一个国际着名的学府,它培养 了一代又一代的学者和伟人,在它 360 多年的历史里面哈佛已经产生了 7 名总统 以及 40 名诺贝尔得奖者,你们应该相当的骄傲.我非常荣幸,非常高兴,现在 在你们的校园里,讲台上和你们面对面的交流. 我非常喜欢年轻人,因为年轻人他们蛮开放,而且不会保守,他们代表了我 们的未来,今年在 SARS 爆发期间,我想到了学生们,非常关心他们,然后我 又想从他们身上可以得到一些力量,这就是为什麽当时我到了清华大学和他们 共进午餐,同时我也到了北京大学和他们交谈,在图书馆里面和他们交谈,在 那个时候,你也许感受不到我们所处的气氛,但是就是这些年轻人还是那样的 乐观,他们憧憬着美丽的将来,他们和我说,人们喜欢说,当树叶出叶的时 候,整棵树都是绿的.他们都希望作为树上的叶子,他就问我,总理,这棵大 树上你喜欢成为这棵树的哪一部分?我马上就回答说,我也是其中一片叶子, 就像你们一样. 作为一个演讲者,首先听演讲的人要知道他是一个什麽人,这样才可以彼此 交心. 大家知道,我出身在一个教师的家庭,我的童年是在战火中度过的,我没有 在座的同学们那样一个美好的童年,在日本侵略者用刺刀把人们赶到广场的时 候,我曾经依偎在妈妈身边,后来战火无情的烧掉了我的全家,连我祖父在农 村办的那所小学,我的工作大部分时间都是在中国最艰苦的地方度过的. 因此,我对我的国家,对我的人民,了解的深,爱的深. 我今天演讲的题目是《把目光投向中国》,中美两国相隔遥远,经济水平和 文化背景差异很大. 女士们,先生们,我坚信 3 亿美国人民对中国人民有着友好的感情,我坚信 发展和改善中美关系不仅会造福两国人民,而且有利於世界的和平与稳定. 我知道,中美两国相隔遥远,经济水平和文化背景差异很大,但愿我的这篇 演讲能够增进我们之间相互了解,要了解一个真实的发展变化着的,充满希望 的中国,就有必要了解中国的昨天,今天和明天.昨天的中国是一个古老,并 创造了灿烂文明的大国. 大家知道,在人类发展史上曾经出现过西亚两河流域的巴比伦文明,北非尼 罗河流域的古埃及文明,地中海北岸的古希腊和罗马文明,南亚的印度河流域
的古文明,还有就是发源於黄河,长江流域的中华文明,由於地震,洪水,瘟 疫,灾荒,由於异族的入侵和内部的动乱,这些古文明有的衰落了,有的消亡 了,有的融入了其它文明,而中华文明以其顽强的凝聚力和隽永的魅力,历经 沧桑,而完整的延续下来.拥有 5 千年的文明史,这是我们中国人的骄傲. 中华民族的传统文化,博大精深,源远流长.早在 2000 多年前,就产生了以 孔孟为代表的儒家学说,和以老庄为代表的道家学说,以及其他许多也在中国 思想史上有地位的学说和学派.这就是有名的诸子百家. 从孔夫子到孙中山,中华民族的传统文化有它的许多珍贵品,许多人民性和 民主性的好东西.比如,强调仁爱,强调群体,强调和而不同,强调天下为 公,特别是天下兴亡,匹夫有责的爱国情*,民为邦本,民贵君轻的民本思 想,己所不欲勿施於人的待人之道.吃苦耐劳,勤俭持家,尊师宗教的传统美 德,世代相传,所有这些,对家庭,对国家和社会都起到了巨大的维系和调节 作用. 今年,9 月 10 日是中国的教师节,那天我专程到医院去看望了北京大学的老 教授季羡林,他已经是 92 岁的高龄,学贯中西,专攻东方学,我非常喜欢他的 散文,他有个很好的习惯,就是住在医院里每天还把所见所闻写一篇很好的散 文,我们在促膝交谈中,谈到近代有过西学东渐,也有过东学西渐,十七到十 八世纪,当外国传教士把中国的文化典籍翻译成西文传到欧洲的时候,曾经引 起西方一批着名的学者和启蒙的思想家极大的兴趣. 其中就有笛卡儿,莱布尼茨,孟德斯鸠,伏尔泰,歌德,康德等,他们都对 中国传统文化有过研究,我年轻的时候读过伏尔泰的着作.他说过,作为思想 家来研究这个星球的历史时,首先要把目光投向包括中国在内的东方.他说, 当其他许多国家的人们还在争论人的起源的时候,中国人已经在认真写自己的 历史了. 非常有意思的是,一个半世纪以前,贵国着名的哲学家杰出的哈佛人艾莫斯 先生他也对中国的传统文化情有独钟,他在文章中载引孔孟的言论很多,他还 把孔子和苏格拉底,耶稣相提并论,认为儒家的道德学说虽然是针对一个与我 们完全不同的社会,但是我们今天读起来仍然受益不浅. 今天我们重温伏尔泰和艾莫斯先生的这句名言,不禁为他们的睿智和远见所 折服. 今天的中国是一个改革开放与和平崛起的大国,费正清先生关於中国人多地 少有过这样的描述,他说,美国的一户农庄所拥有的土地,到了中国去居住着 整整一个拥有数百人的村落.他还说,美国人尽管在历史上也曾经以务农为 本,但是体会不到人口稠密的压力.人多,不发达,这是中国的两大国情. 中国有 13 亿人口,我常常给大家介绍一个 13 亿的,简单但却很复杂的乘除 法,这就是多麽小的问题乘以 13 亿,都可以变成很大的问题,多麽大的经济总 量除以 13 亿都可以变为一个很小的数目,这是成为很低很低的人均水平,这是 中国领导人任何时候都必须牢牢记住的. 解决 13 亿人的问题,不能靠别人,只能靠自己.中华人民共和国成立以来, 我们的建设取得了很大的成就,同时,我们也走了一些弯路,失去了一些机 遇,从 1978 年开始的改革开放,我们终於找到了一条发展自己的正确道路,这 就是中国人民独立自主的建设中国特色社会主义这条道路的精髓,就是调动一 切积极因素,解放和发展生产力,尊重和保障中国人民追求幸福的自由. 中国的改革开放从农村到城市,从经济领域到政治文化,社会领域,它的每
一步深入说到底都是为了放手让一切劳动,知识,技术,管理和资本的活力竞 相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的源泉充分涌流. 中国在相当长的时期内实行高度集中的计划经济体制,随着社会主义市场经 济体制改革的深入和民主政治建设的推进,过去人们在择业,迁徙,致富,投 资,咨询,旅游,信仰和选择生活方式等方面有无形和有形的不合理的限制被 逐步的解除了,这就带来了前所未有的广泛而深刻的变化.一方面广大城乡劳 动者的积极性得以释放,特别是数以亿计的农民得以走出传统的村落,进入城 市,特别是沿海地区.数以千万计的知识分子的聪明才智得到充分发挥. 另一方面,规模庞大的国有资产得以盘活,数万亿元的民间资本得以形成, 5000 亿美元的境外资本得以流入,这种资本和劳动的结合就在中国 960 万平方 公里的国土上演进着人类历史上规模极为宏大的工业化和城市化. 过去 25 年间,中国经济之所以按年均 9.4%的速度迅速增长,其奥秘就在於 此. 25 年间,中国创造的巨大财富不仅使 13 亿中国人基本解决了温饱,基本实现 了小康,而且为世界发展做出了贡献.中国所有的这些进步都得益於改革开 放,归根到底来自於中国人民基於自由的创造. 我清醒的认识到,在中国现阶段,相对於有限的资源和短缺的资本,劳动力 的供应是十分充裕的,不切实保护广大劳动者,特别是进城农民工的基本权 利,他们就有可能陷入像狄更斯,德莱塞小说所描述的那种痛苦的经历.不切 实保护公民的财产权利,就难以积累和吸引宝贵的资本.因此,中国政府致力 於两个保护,一个是保护劳动者的基本权利,一个是保护财产权利.既要保护 共有财产,又要保护私人财产,关於这一点,中国的法律已经做出明确的规 定,并且付诸实施.中国的改革开放正是为了推动中国的人权进步,两者是相 互依存,相互促进的. 改革开放为人权进步创造了条件,人权进步为改革开放增添了动力,如果把 两者割裂开来,以为中国只注意发展经济而忽视人权保护,这种看法不符合实 际,正如贵国前总统罗斯福曾经指出的,真正的个人自由在没有经济安全和独 立的情况下,是不存在的.贫者无自由. 我并不认为今天中国的人权状况是尽善尽美的,对於人权方面存在的这样那 样的弊端和消极现象,中国政府一直认真努力加以克服. 在中国,把发展,改革和稳定叁者结合起来,具有极端的重要性和艰巨性. 百闻不如一见,只要朋友们到中国实地看一看,对改革开放以来中国的人权的 进步和中国政府为保障人权所做的艰苦努力,就会有个客观的理解和认识. 中国是个发展中的大国,我们的发展不应当也不可能依赖外国,必须也只能 把事情放在自己力量的基点上,这就是说,我们要在扩大对外开放的同时更加 充分和自觉的依靠自身的体制创新,更加充分和依靠开发越来越大的国内市 场,更加充分和依靠把庞大的居民储蓄转化为投资,更加充分依靠国民素质的 提高和科技进步来解决资源和环境问题.中国和平崛起的发展道路的要义就在 於此. 当然,中国仍然是一个发展中国家,城市和农村,东部和西部存在着明显的 发展差距,如果你们到中国东南沿海的城市去旅行,就会看到高楼林立,车流 如织,灯火辉煌的现代景观,但是那不是中国的全部.在中国的农村,特别是 中国西部农村还有不少落后的地方.前不久,美国的商务部长埃文斯和我谈中 美贸易问题,他先去了中国西部的农村,带来了两张照片,这两张照片反映了
中国西部农村的落后情况,他深有感触,说永远不会忘记那里的人民.我说, 中国 2500 个县,我跑过了 1800 个,最穷困的地方我都到过了,你看到的还不 是最穷的,我说你如果懂得了中国的真实情况,今天我们两个会谈的问题都很 好的能够解决了. 在那些贫穷的偏僻的山村,人们还在使用人力和畜力耕作,居住的是土坯 房,大旱之年人畜饮水十分困难,我的心里常默念着郑板桥的两句诗,就是 「衙斋卧听萧萧竹,疑是人间疾苦声」,作为中国的总理,每念及我们还有 3 千万的农民同胞没有解决温饱,还有 2300 万领取最低生活保障金的城镇人口, 还有 6 千万需要社会帮助的残疾人,我忧心如焚,寝食难安.中国要达到发达 国家的水平,还需要几代人,十几代人,甚至几十代人的长期的艰苦奋斗.明 天的中国是一个热爱和平和充满希望的大国,中华民族历来酷爱和平,2000 年 前,秦始皇修筑的长城是防御性的,1000 年前,唐朝开辟通向西域的丝绸之 路,是为了把丝绸,茶叶,瓷器销往世界,500 年前,明朝着名的外交家和航 海家郑和下西洋是为了同友邦结好,带去了精美的产品和先进的农业,手工业 技术,正如俄罗斯伟大的文学家托尔斯泰所说,中华民族是最古老的民族,最 伟大的民族,世界上最酷爱和平的民族. 近代以来,由於封建王朝的愚昧和腐败及闭关锁国,导致社会停滞,国力衰 竭,列强频频入侵,中华民族尽管灾难沉重,饱受凌辱,但是始终自强不息. 一个民族在灾难和挫折中学到的东西会比平时多得多.中国已经制定了实现现 代化的叁步走的战略,从现在起到 2020 年,中国要全面实现小康,到 2049 年,共和国成立 100 周年的时候,我们将达到世界中等发达国家的水平,我们 清醒的估计到,在前进的道路上还要克服许许多多可以想见的和难以预料的困 难,迎接各种各样的严峻的挑战,我们不能不持有这样的危机感. 当然,中国政府和中国人民有足够的信心励精图治,艰苦奋斗,排除万难, 实现我们的雄心壮志,这是因为当今世界的潮流是要和平,要发展,中国的发 展正面临非常难得的机遇期,这种大的机遇期不多,稍纵即逝.我们已经下定 决心,争取和平的国际环境和稳定的国内环境,集中精力发展自己,又以自己 的发展促进世界的和平与发展,那是因为中国坚持的是充满生机和活力的社会 主义. 我曾经在我担任总理的那一天做过一个比喻,我说,社会主义是大海,大海 容纳百川,永不枯竭,我们立足国情,大胆推进改革开放,勇於吸收人类一切 优秀文明的成果来充实自己.一个善於自我调整,自我完善的社会主义,它的 生机和活力是无限的,这是因为改革开放 25 年来我们已积累了一定的物质基 础,中国经济在世界上已经占有一席之地,中国亿万人民追求幸福,创造财富 的积极性乃是推进国家现代化取之不尽,用之不竭的巨大力量.这是因为中华 民族具有极其深厚的文化底蕴,和而不同是中国古代思想家提出的一个伟大的 思想,和谐而又不千篇一律,不同而又不彼此冲突,和谐以共生共长,不同以 相辅相成,用合而不同的观点观察处理问题,不仅有利於我们善待友邦,也有 利於国际社会化解矛盾. 女士们,先生们,加深理解是相互的,我希望美国青年把目光投向中国,也 相信中国青年会进一步把目光投向美国,美国是一个伟大的国家,从移民时代 开始,美利坚顽强气质和拓荒的气质,创新精神,对知识的尊重和人才的吸 纳,科学和法制的传统,铸造了美国的繁荣.美国人民在遭受「911 恐怖袭 击」时所表现出来的镇定,互助和勇气令人钦佩. 进入 21 世纪,人类面临的经济和社会问题更加复杂,文化因素将在新的世纪 里发挥更加重要的作用,不同民族的语言各不相同,而心灵,情感是相通的, 不同民族的文化千姿百态,其合理的内核往往是相同的,总能为人类所传承. 各民族的文明都是人类智慧的成果,对於人类进步做出了贡献,应该彼此尊
重,人类因无知或偏见引起的冲突,有时比因利益引起的冲突更可怕.我们主 张以平等和包容的精神努力寻找双方的共同点,开展广泛的文明对话和深入的 文化交流. 贵国着名的一位诗人在一篇诗中曾经这样写道,无论世界怎样变化,树木逢 春便会绿叶招展.青年代表着国家和世界的未来,面对新世纪中美关系的广阔 前景,我希望两国的青年更加紧密的携起手来. 女士们,先生们,中华民族的祖先曾追求这样一种境界,为天地利新,为生 命利命,为万事开太平.今天,人类正处在社会极具大变动的时代,回溯源 头,传承命脉,相互学习,开拓创新,是各国弘扬本民族优秀文化的明智选 择.我呼吁,让我们共同以智慧和力量去推动人类文明的进步与发展,我们的 成功将承继先贤,泽被后世,这样我们的子孙就能生活在一个更加和平安定和 繁荣的世界里. 我坚信,这样一个无限光明,无限美好的明天必将到来.(全场鼓掌雷鸣) 谢谢诸位! 现在我愿意回答同学们的问题,大家可以举手提问. 问:我先提问,非常感谢,感谢您,涉及非常广泛,非常有趣的,其实我有 很多问题想问您,但是现在不是我问问题的时候,学生他们递上来小条子问问 题,我就告诉您,学生的问题比我的问题其实难多了,所以说,我想念几个问 题,是我们学生提出的问题. 温总理刚刚讲了非常丰富的讲话,我自己本来很欣赏您的历史角度的发言, 我自己很想向您提问题,我还是想让我们的学生提出问题,因为我们学生提的 问题恐怕比我提的问题还要不好回答,不过,我现在就把第一个问题向您讲 讲. 问:温总理,您对中国民主的前景怎麽看,您是否可以预见到共产党的角色 会有任何改变吗?也就是说,您是否可以预见到有竞争的乡县或者是省的直接 选举? 温家宝总理:毫无疑问,发展民主是我们奋斗的目标,我们就是要把国家建 设成为一个富强,民主和文明的现代化国家.我们曾经讲过,没有民主就没有 社会主义,我们为发展社会主义的民主要采取一些具体的措施和步骤.首先, 我们要完善选举的制度,刚才提到,中国的县乡的选举制度在 68 万个村是实行 村民自治和直接选举,在乡和县以及不社区的市实行的是间接选举,在省以上 以至中央也实行的是间接选举,我们还不具备在高层实行直接选举的条件,因 为中国很大,经济发展不平衡,首先人的文化素质就不高. 第二,要让人民监督政府,批评政府,只有人民监督政府,政府的工作才不 敢懈怠,只有接受人民的批评,我们的政府才不会人亡政息,当然,中国的民 主政治的建设是一个相当长的过程,但是如果看一看美国的历史,从 1776 年独 立宣言的发表,到 19 世纪 60 年代南北战争,一直到 20 世纪 60 年代马丁.路德金 的事件的发生,民主的发展不是也是一个很长的过程吗?我方才引用了贵国罗 斯福总统的一句名言,贫者无自由,其实杰斐逊在写独立宣言的时候也是把人 的生存权摆在了第一位,让 13 亿的中国人都生活好起来,这是我们面临的巨大 任务.谢谢! 有人非常愿意到哈佛大学演讲,但又害怕到哈佛大学来演讲,愿意到哈佛大 学来演讲,是因为哈佛大学的名气很大,这里人才荟萃,害怕到哈佛大学来演 讲,是因为这里的老师和同学有时提出的问题难以回答.
我来之前,总记着妈妈告诉我的一句话,她说人要做到真实,真情,真挚, 真切,如果做到这四个真,人的境界就不一样了,我可能回答不好大家的问 题,但是我敢说实话.(全场掌声) 问:温总理你好,我在哈佛教育学院读博士,我两年前从北京大学英语系本 科毕业来到这里学习的,我现在代表中国学生非常高兴您能来到这里和我们亲 切会谈,我想问的问题是,您说过 2008 年要把北京的奥运会办成最出色的一次 奥运会,您指的最出色的指的是哪一些方面? 温家宝:看来她比我还紧张,我也不知道坐在这里的是中国学生多还是美国 学生多,但是中国同学提出办奥运会这件事引起我一段辛酸的回忆.那是在解 放以前,我们只有一个运动员能够参加奥运会,他是个短跑运动员,叫刘长 春,他是坐船到美国的,他的身体已经很疲劳了,他代表中国虽然没有取得优 异的成绩,但是就是这一个人参加奥运会都牵动着全国人民的心,现在中国人 能办奥运会了,是因为中国强大了,世界各国瞧得起我们了,因此我们一定要 把奥运会办好,我指的办的出色,是指的是我们要把奥运会办的有水平,管理 的有水平,但同时我们又要节俭办奥运,因为我们国家还不富裕,谢谢你! 问:请允许我用英语提这个问题,您提到过和布什总统谈话的时候,您就 说,希望可以促进美国对中国多出口,所以我想请问一下中国准备采取什麽措 施来鼓励更多的美国产品出口到中国去? 温家宝:增加美国产品向中国的出口,确实是美国人民关心的一个问题,我 昨天同布什总统在会谈中也涉及了这个问题,应该说,这两年美国产品对中国 的出口是增加的,比如说去年,美国对世界其它国家的出口产品增长 23%,但 对中国出口的产品增长 15%,今年 110 月份,美国对中国出口的产品增长 26 %.但是我们要承认,在中美贸易中确实美国存在着较大的逆差,这是事实. 我和布什总统谈的很好,没有陷入到具体问题,而确实像中国诗人描写的境 界,会当凌绝顶,一览众山小.我想布什总统提出进一步发展中美经贸合作的 五条原则,第一就是双利互赢,要从大处着眼,每一方都要考虑对方的利益; 第二把发展放在首位,解决这个问题的办法,不能把中国的出口减少,而应该 把美国向中国出口增加.最近我们派了一些贸易代表团和采购团,到美国订了 两批合同,第一批是购买波音飞机花了 17 亿美元,第二是和通用电信公司签订 了一个协议,就是制造中国直线飞机的发动机,花了 30 多亿美元,还有其他项 目,大概一共 60 多亿美元,我们中旬还准备陆续派采购团到美国来采购美国生 产的棉花,小麦,大豆以及机电产品.但是我也希望美国有关方面应该放宽对 中国出口产品的限制.我举了个例子,我说,中国需要数控机床,需要计算 机,我们还可以合作搞核能发电,我说我们了解美国的最终用户的检查这种体 制,我们也尊重这种体制,因为我在我们国家的气象局看到一台由美国进口的 中等性能的计算机,旁边就坐着一个美国人,每天都坐在那里看着,我还举了 一个大家都知道的中国几年前同美国罗拉公司签订发射一颗卫星,我们已经交 了预定金,1.3 亿美元,我并不想要这个钱,但是美方以怕中国提高火箭发射 连载人宇宙飞船都上天了.因此我用了一句玩笑的话,我说这种不合时宜的观 点应该扔到太平洋里去;我提的第叁条建议就是要平等协商,遇到问题要及时 磋商,不要动辄限制和制裁.我提的第四条建议,我认为是最重要的,就是中 美应该成立和提升贸易协调机制.因此,我建议中国由吴仪副总理担任中方主 席,美方由埃文斯部长和佐力克(音)先生担任美方双任主席来共同组成中贸 联合协调委员会.我提的第五条建议就是不要把经贸问题政治化,中美关系来 之不易,一个成熟的关系不要因为任何一点矛盾和摩擦而撕裂我们合作的纽 带.我的这些建议布什总统都表示赞成. 主持人:温总理,听到您刚刚对最后一个问题的回答,我已经发现我们今天 在哈佛商学院请您讲话是最恰当的地方了,应该说我今天不幸的任务就是要指