第二部分（21-40 句译文） 21. For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is recorded, and the record is available for the student to show to prospective employers.
22. All this imposes a constant pressure and strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs.
23. The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students who advise the academic authorities.
24. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has.
25. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.
26. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching contributes to all these aspects of learning.
27. They also learn how to cope with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyse and evaluate, and to communicate effectively.
28. The problem is, how to encourage a child to express himself freely and confidently in writing without holding him back with the complexities of spelling?
29. It may have been a sharp criticism of the pupil’s technical abilities in writing, but it was also a sad reflection on the teacher who had omitted to read the essay, which contained some beautiful expressions of the child’s deep feelings.
30. The teacher was not wrong to draw attention to the errors, but if his priorities had centred on the child’s ideas, an expression of his disappointment with the presentation would have given the pupil more motivation to seek improvement.
31. Given the nature of government and private employers, it seems most likely that discrimination by private employers would be greater.
32. The release of the carbon in these compounds for recycling depends almost entirely on the action of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and certain types of fungi.
33. A spirited discussion springs up between a young girl who says that women have outgrown the jumping-on-a-chair-at-the-sight-of-a mouse era and a major who says that they haven’t.
34. They are trying to find out whether there is something about the way we teach language to children which in fact prevents children from learning sooner.
35. Mathematicians who have tried to use the computers to copy the way the brain works have found that even using the latest electronic equipment they would have to build a computer which weighed over 10,000 kilos.
36. Since different people like to do so many different things in their spare time, we could make a long list of hobbies, taking in everything from collecting matchboxes and raising rare fish, to learning about the stars and making model ships.
37. They know that a seal swimming under the ice will keep a breathing hole open by its warm breath, so they will wait beside the hole and kill it.
38. We may be able to decide whether someone is white only by seeing if they have none of the features that would mark them clearly as a member of another race.
39. Although signs of dishonesty in school , business and government seem much more numerous in years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty?
40. It is not quite a matter of disagreeing with the theory of independence, but of rejecting its implications: that the romances may be taken in any or no particular order, that they have no cumulative effect, and that they are as separate as the works of a modern novelist. 41. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his definition of racial prejudice as “ racially-based negative prejudgments against
a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition,” can be interpreted as also including hostility toward such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe.
42. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of and so was crucial in sustaining — the Black heritage of folklore, music, and religious expression from one generation to another, a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences.
43. Even the folk knowledge in social systems on which ordinary life is based in earning, spending, organizing, marrying, taking part in political activities, fighting and so on , is not very dissimilar from the more sophisticated images of the social system derived from the social sciences, even though it is built upon the very imperfect samples of personal experience.
44. There are several steps that can be taken, of which the chief one is to demand of all the organizations that exist with the declared objectives of safeguarding the interests of animals that they should declare clearly where they stand on violence towards people.
45. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types, however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.
46. According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge , and there is some evidence for this view.
47. The result of attrition is that, where the areas of the whole leaves follow a normal distribution, a bimodal distribution is produced, one peak composed mainly of fragmented pieces, the other of the larger remains.
48. The Bible does not tell us how the Roman census takers made out, and as regards our more immediate concern, the reliability of present day economic forecasting, there are considerable difference of opinion.
49. A survey conducted in Britain confirmed that an abnormally high percentage of patients suffering from arthritis of the spine who had been treated with X rays contracted cancer.
50. Yet across the gulf of space, minds that are to our minds as ours are to those of the beasts that perish, intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic, regarded this earth with envious eyes, and slowly and surely drew their plans against us.
51. Even the doctoral degree, long recognized as a required “ union card” in the academic world, has come under severe criticism as the pursuit of learning for its own sake and the accumulation of knowledge without immediate application to a professor’s classroom duties.
52. While a selection of necessary details is involved in both, the officer must remain neutral and clearly try to present a picture of the facts, while the artist usually begins with a preconceived message or attitude which is then transmitted through the use of carefully selected details of action described in words intended to provoke associations and emotional reactions in the reader.
53. Articles in the popular press even criticize the Gross National Production (GNP) because it is not such a complete index of welfare, ignoring, on the one hand, that it was never intended to be, and suggesting, on the other, that with appropriate changes it could be converted into one.
54. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psychoneuaral correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.
55. The Chinese have distributed publications to farmers and other rural residents instructing them in what to watch for their animals so that every household can join in helping to predict earthquakes.
56. Supporters of the Star Wars defense system hope that this would not only protect a nation against an actual nuclear attack, but would be enough of a threat to keep a nuclear war from ever happening.
57. Neither would it prevent cruise missiles or bombers, whose flights are within the Earth’s atmosphere, from hitting their targets.
58. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics,
and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.
59. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to its parents, is yet considered emotionally “ priceless”.
60. Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicted in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo. 61. Of course, it would be as dangerous to overreact to history by concluding that the majority must now be wrong about expansion as it would be to re-enact the response that greeted the suggestion that the continents had drifted.
62. While the fact of this consumer revolution is hardly in doubt, three key questions remain: who were the consumers? What were their motives? And what were the effect of the new demand for luxuries?
63. Although it has been possible to infer from the goods and services actually produced what manufacturers and servicing trades thought their customers wanted, only a study of relevant personal documents written by actual consumers will provide a precise picture of who wanted what.
64. With respect to their reasons for immigrating, Grassy does not deny their frequently noted fact that some of the immigrants of the 1630’s, most notably the organizers and clergy, advanced religious explanations for departure, but he finds that such explanations usually assumed primacy only in retrospect.
65. If we take the age-and sex-specific unemployment rates that existed in 1956 (when the overall unemployment rate was 4.1 percent) and weight them by the age- and sex-specific shares of the labor force that prevail currently, the overall unemployment rate becomes 5 percent.
66. He was puzzled that I did not want what was obviously a “ step up” toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up: money and power.
67. Unless productivity growth is unexpectedly large, however, the expansion of real output must eventually begin to slow down to the economy’s larger run growth potential if generalized demand pressures on prices are to be avoided.
68. However, when investment flows primarily in one direction, as it generally does from industrial to developing countries, the seemingly reciprocal source-based restrictions produce revenue sacrifices primarily by the state receiving most of the foreign investment and producing most of the income—namely ,the developing country partner.
69. The pursuit of private interests with as little interference as possible from government was seen as the road to human happiness and progress rather than the public obligation and involvement in the collective community that emphasized by the Greeks.
70. The defense lawyer relied on long-standing principles governing the conduct of prosecuting attorneys: as quasi-judicial officers of the court they are under a duty not to prejudice a party’s case through overzealous prosecution or to detract from the impartiality of courtroom atmosphere.
71. No prudent person dared to act on the assumption that, when the continent was settled, one government could include the whole; and when the vast expense broke up, as seemed inevitable, into a collection of separate nations, only discord, antagonism, and wars could be expected.
72. If they were right in thinking that the next necessity in human progress was to lift the average person upon an intellectual and social level with the most favored, they stood at least three generations nearer than Europe to that goal.
73. Somehow he knows that if our huckstering civilization did not at every moment violate the eternal fitness of things, the poet’s song would have been given to the world, and the poet would have been cared for by the whole human brotherhood, as any man should be who does the duty that every man owes it.
74. The instinctive sense of the dishonor which money-purchase does to art is so strong that sometimes a man of letters who can pay his way otherwise refuses pay for his work, as Lord Byron did, for a while, from a noble pride, and as Count Tolstoy has tried to do, from a noble conscience.
75. Perhaps he believed that he could not criticize American foreign policy without endangering the support for civil rights that he had won from the federal government.
76. Abraham Lincoln, who presided in his stone temple on August 28, 1963 above the children of the slaves he emancipated (解放), may have used just the right words to sum up the general reaction to the Negroes’ massive march on Washington.
77. In the Warren Court era, voters asked the Court to pass on issues concerning the size and shape of electoral districts, partly out of desperation because no other branch of government offered relief, and partly out of hope that the Court would reexamine old decisions in this area as it had in others, looking at basic constitutional principles in the light of modern living conditions.
78. Some even argue plausibly that this weakness may be irremediable : in any society that, like a capitalist society, seeks to become ever wealthier in material terms disproportionate rewards are bound to flow to the people who are instrumental in producing the increase in its wealth.
79. This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other, nonracial forms of discrimination, for while some justices have refused to find any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored, most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations, sexual discrimination in particular, are “suspect” and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts.
80. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to have more room for creative accident. 81. Both novelists use a storytelling method that emphasizes ironic disjunctions between different perspectives on the same events as well as ironic tensions that inhere in the relationship between surface drama and concealed authorical intention, a method I call an evidentiary narrative technique.
82. When black poets are discussed separately as a group, for instance, the extent to which their work reflects the development of poetry in general should not be forgotten, or a distortion of literacy history may result.
83. These differences include the bolder and more forthright speech of the later generation and its technical inventiveness.
84. But black poets were not battling over old or new rather, one accomplished Black poet was ready to welcome another, whatever his or her style, for what mattered was racial pride.
85. Tolstoy reversed all preconceptions and in every reversal he overthrew the “ system”, the “ machine”, the externally ordained belief, the conventional behaviour in favor of unsystematic, impulsive life, of inward motivation and the solutions of independent thought.
86. It was better covered by television and press than any event here since President Kennedy’s inauguration (就职) , and , since indifferent is almost as great a problem to the Negro as hostility, this was a plus.
87. But do not the challenge and the excitement of the critical problem as such lie in that ambivalence of attitude which allows us to recognize the intelligence and even the splendor of Meredith’s work, while, at the same time, we experience a lack of sympathy, a failure of any enthusiasm of response?
88. In this respect she resembled one of her favourite contemporaries, Mary Brunton, who would rather have “ glided through the world unknown” than been suspected of literary airs—to be shunned, as literary women are, by the more pretending of their own sex, and abhorred, as literary women are, by the more pretending of the other!
89. From those sounds which we hear on small or on coarse occasions, we do not easily receive strong impressions, or delightful images; and words to which we are nearly strangers, whenever they occur, draw that attention on themselves which they should transmit to things. 90. To proceed thus is to set up a fivefold hypothesis that enables you to gather from the innumerable items cast up by the sea of experience upon the shores of your observation only the limited number of relevant data—relevant, that is, to one or more of the five factors of your hypothesis.
91. As an author, I am naturally concerned that a surprisingly large percentage of the population of the United States is functionally illiterate; if they can’t read or cannot understand what they read, they won’t buy books, or this magazine.
92. They do not know those parts of the doctrine which explain and justify the remainder ; the considerations which show that a fact which seemingly conflicts with another is reconcilable with it, or that, of two apparently strong reasons, one and not the other ought to be preferred.
93. Quite apart from the logistic problems, there existed a well-established tradition in Britain which refused to repatriate against their will people who found themselves in British hands and the nature of whose reception by their own government was, to say the least, dubious.
94. An obsession with the exact privileges of a colonial legislature and the precise extent of Britain’s imperial power, the specifics of a state constitution and the absolute necessity of a federal one, all expressed this urge for a careful articulation as proof that the right relationship with external powers did indeed prevail.
95. One encyclopaedia tells us that intelligence is related to the ability to learn, to the speed with which things are learned, to how well and how long ideas are remembered, to the ability to understand those ideas and use them in problem-solving, and to creativity.
96. The event marked the end of an extended effort by William Barton Rogers, M.I.T. ‘s founder and first president, to create a new kind of educational institution relevant to the times and to the contrary’s need, where young men and women would be educated in the application as well as the acquisition of knowledge.
97. Each departmental program consists, in part, of a grouping of subjects in the department’s areas of professional interest and, in part, of additional opportunities for students of their choice.
98. Alternatively, a student may use elective time to prepare for advanced study in some professional field, such as medicine or law, for graduate study in some area in which M. I. T. gives no undergraduate degree, such as meteorology or psychology, or for advanced study in an interdisciplinary field, such as astrophysics, communication science, or energy.
99. While the undergraduate curriculum for an open Bachelor of Science degree, as listed by a department, may have its own unique features, each program must be laid out in consultation with a departmental representative to assure that it is meaningful in structure and challenging in content.
100. Where previously it had concentrated on the big infrastructure projects such as dams, roads and bridges, it began to switch to projects which directly improved the basic services of a country. 第六部分（101-120 句译文）
101. Thus in addition to the chances of going away from the right path outlined above, the scientific investigator shares with the ordinary citizen the possibilities of falling into errors of reasoning in the ways we have just indicated, and many others as well.
102. He made a hole and peering through, could see jewellery, and other objects stacked in piles in the shadows that extended beyond the beam of light penetrating the interior.
103. Neither Ayat nor the Rassoul brothers noticed, however, that most of the pieces they were selling were of a type not previously seen in the marketplace—pieces whose existence had been suspected but which had not yet been discovered by archaeologists.
104. “The biggest construction project of this century”, explained French President Francois Mitterand in January, 1986 as he and then British prime minister Margaret Thatcher jointly announced that the two countries would finally overcome ancient quarrels and prejudices and forge a link across the narrow Channel separating them.
105. Perhaps the fact that many of these first studies considered only algae(水藻) of a size that could be collected in a net (net phytoplankton), a practice that overlooked the smaller phytoplankton(浮游植物群落) that we now know grazers are most likely to feed on, led to a de-emphasis of the role of grazers in subsequent research.
106. The converse observation, of the absence of grazers (食草动物)in areas of high phytoPlankton(浮游植物群落)concentration, led Hardy to propose his principle of animal exclusion , which hypothesized that phytoplankton produced a repellent(驱虫剂) that excluded grazers from regions of high phytoplankton concentration.
107. Although these molecules allow radiation at visible at wave lengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated, to pass through, they absorb some of the longer-wavelength, infrared emission(红外辐射) radiated from the Earth’s surface, radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space.
108. In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer’s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism(超现实主义), does this technique provide a counter point to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted, a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression?
109. Roseenblatt’s thematic analysis permits considerable objectivity; he even explicitly states
that it is not his intention to judge the merit of the various works—yet his reluctance seems misplaced, especially since an attempt to appraise might have led to interesting results.
110. Thus, for instance, it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation (薛定谔的方程式)for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom, but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin, magnetic dipole (磁性偶极子), and relatiristic effects, and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field theoretical equations( 量 子场论方程式).
111. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights, and thus they seek to accentuate( 强 调) contradictions in social action, not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends, cosmic purpose, or laws of nature.
112. The hydrologic(水文地质的) cycle, a major topic in this science, is the complete cycle of phenomena through which water passes, beginning as atmospheric water vapor, passing into liquid and solid form as precipitation (降水(量)), thence along and into the ground surface, and finally again returning to the form of atmospheric water vapor by means of evaporation and transpiration(散 发).
113. My point is that its central consciousness—its profound understanding of class and gender as shaping influences on people’s lives—owes much to that earlier literary heritage, a heritage that, in general, has not been sufficiently valued by most contemporary literary critics.
114. In the early 1950’s historians who studies preindustrial Europe (which we may define here as Europe in the period from roughly 1300 to 1800) began, for the first time in large numbers, to investigate more of the preindustrial European population than the 2 or 3 percent who comprised the political and social elite (精华) : the kings, generals, judges, nobles, bishops, and local magnates (要人) who had hitherto (迄今) usually filled history books.
115. The historian Frederick J. Tuner wrote in the 1890’s that the agrarian(农民) discontent (不满) that had been developing steadily in the United States since about 1870 had been precipitated (加速) by the closing of the internal frontier—that is , the depletion (枯竭) of available new land needed for further expansion of the American farming system.
116. Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beure’s blindness to the real nature of great writing, found
the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments, and allowed these to take over in a steadily developing novel.
117. The best evidence for the layered mantle (地幔) thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands, islands believed to result from mantle plumes (地柱) arising from the lower mantle, are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the midocean ridge system, whose source, most geologists contend, is the upper mantle.
118. In October 1838, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on, from long continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that, under these circumstances, favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed.
119. But these beliefs about peptide hormones (肽激素) were questioned as laboratory after laboratory found that antiserums(抗血清) to peptide hormones, when injected into the brain, bind in places other than the hypothalamus(下丘脑), indicating that either the hormones or substances that cross-react with the antiserums are present.
120 Proponents(支持者)of the so-called Golden Quadrangle (金四角)，which would link areas of Bruma, Laos, Thailand and China's Yunnan province, are seeking an Asian Development Bank feasibility study of joint development and business projects that could free the region's hinterlands(内 地)from their notorious dependence on the heroin trade. 第七部分（121-140 句译文） 121. He enjoys the liberties hard won over centuries by the alliance of philosophic genius and political heroism, consecrated by the blood of martyrs (烈士) ; he is provided with comport and leisure by the most productive economy ever known to mankind; science has penetrated the secrets of nature in order to provide him with the marvellous, life like electronic sound and image reproductions he is enjoying.
122. Each highbrow did and does congratulate himself on being unique in his unlikeness to other men; and conversely each lowbrow now congratulate himself on being in some mystical way unique in his likeness—on being, so to say, outstandingly average and extraordinarily ordinary.
123. As for the lowbrows’ claim to be specially “human”, I for one have never been able to understand why it should be “inhuman” to use the faculties that distinguish us from pigs and geese and “human” to use those which we share with the lower animals.
124. There is no disputing, says the proverb, about taste—though, in fact, human beings spend at least half their leisure doing nothing else—and if highbrowism and lowbrowism were exclusively ( as it is certain that they are in great part) matters of individual taste, there would be no more to say about them than what I have said in the preceding lines.
125. Thus I desire a great deal less pleasure from jazz and thrillers than from the music, let us say, of Beethoven(贝多芬) or the novels, for example, of Dostoievsky; and the sex appeal of the girls on the covers of magazines seems to me less thrilling than the more complicated appeal to a great variety of feelings made by a Rubens, an EI Greco, a Constable, a Seurat.
126. One need only ask first-year university students what music they listen to , how much of it and what it means to them, in order to discover that the phenomenon is universal in America, that it begins in adolescence or a bit before and continues through the college years.
127. They start, like the pharisee in the parable , by thanking God that the are not as other men are, and proceed to paint a picture of those other men, hardly more flattering than that which Swift painted of the Yahoos.
128. Each time the dream was a promise out of our ancient articles of faith, phrases from the constitution, lines from the great anthem of the nation, guarantees from the Bill of Rights, all ending with a vision that they might one day all come true . 129. For many the day seemed an adventure, a long outing in the late summer sun—part liberation from home, part Sunday school picnic, part political convention, and part fish fry.
130. It may not “look to it” at once, since it is looking to so many things, but it will be a long time before it forgets the melodious(悦耳的) and melancholy (忧郁的) voice of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther Jr., crying out his dreams to the multitude(大众).
131. Above all , they got over Lincoln’s point that “ the necessity of being ready increase”, for they left no doubt that this was not the climax of their campaign for equality but merely the beginning, that they were going to stay in the streets until they could get equality in the schools, restaurants, houses and employment agencies of the nation, and that, as they demonstrated here today, they had found an effective way to demonstrate for changes in the laws without breaking the law themselves.
132. Although we apparently have a need for REM sleep, judging from the fact that our bodies automatically compensate for a loss of it, what REM sleep actually does for us is not clear.
133. Coming out while you were poised unsteadily on the icy, springy brush they made difficult shooting and I killed two, missed five, and started back pleased to have found a covey to the house and happy there were so many left to find on another day.
134. More important to them, though, is that it gives them some places where they can borrow money at a cost that is usually a good deal less than at the small-loan agency, or the installment house, or indeed most places.
135. That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted.
136. Temporary shortages do occur, but Simon and other boomsters(兴旺论者) argue that as long as government doesn’t interfere—by mandating (指令) conservation or setting price controls (价 格) —people will find alternative (代用品).
137. He seldom ignores that many potential votes, and it did not escape the notice of congressmen that these Negro organizations, some of which had almost as much trouble getting out a crowd as the Washington Senators several years ago, were now capable of organizing the largest demonstrating throng (群众) ever gathered at one spot in the District of Columbia..
138. Towards the end of the century there was still considerable argument over whether books should be used for information or treated respectfully, and over whether the reading of material such as newspapers was in some way mentally weakening.
139. However, whatever its virtues, the old shared literacy culture had gone and was replaced by the printed mass media(宣传工具)on the one hand and by books and magazines for a specialized readership on the other.
140. By the end of the century students were being recommended to adopt attitudes to books and to use skills in reading them which were inappropriate, if not impossible, for the oral reader. 第八部分（141-160 句译文）
141. Though most dictionary have a system of making words as obsolete, or in use only as slang, many people, more especially if their use of a particular word has been challenged, are likely to conclude, if they find it in a dictionary, that it is accepted as being used by writers of established reputation.
142. People can be relatively rich only if others are relatively poor, and since power is concentrated in the hands of the rich, public policies will continue to reflect their interests rather than those of the poor.
143. Social change is more likely to occur in societies where there is a mixture of different kinds of people than in societies where people are similar in many ways.
144. In a family where the roles of men and women are not sharply separated and where many household tasks are shared to a greater or lesser extent, Notions of male superiority are hard to maintain.
145. In such a home, the growing boy and girl learn to accept that equality more easily than did their parents and to prepare more fully for participation in a world characterized by co-operation rather than by the “battle of the sexes.”
146. The family is a co-operative enterprise for which it is difficult to lay down rules, because each family, needs to work out its own ways for solving its own problems.
147. Besides serving the indefinite needs of its native speakers, English is a language in which some of important works in science, technology, and other fields are being produced, and not always by native speakers.
148. And someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more cognitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind.
149. Perfectionists struggle over little things at the cost of something larger they work toward.
150. Men are naturally most impressed by diseases which have obvious signs, yet some of their worst enemies slowly approach them unnoticed.
151. The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage –--a person
may feel perfectly well, but the cells of his or her sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of deformed (畸形) children or even grandchildren.
152. In the end , only 7 out of 19 regular Cola drinkers correctly identified their brand of choice in all for trails. The diet-Cola drinkers did a little worse – only 7 of 27 identified all four sample correctly.
153. Taste is such a subjective matter that we don’t usually conduct preference tests for food.
154. It seems simple enough to distinguish between the organism and the surrounding environment and to separate forces acting on an organism into those that are internal and biological and those that are external and environmental.
155. But in actual practice this system breaks down in many ways, because the organism and the environment are constantly interacting so that the environment is modified by the orgainism and vice versa (反之亦然).
156. In the case of man, the difficulties with the environment concept are even more complicated because we have to deal with man as an animal and with man as a bearer(持有者) of culture.
157. If we look at man as an animal and try to analyze the environmental forces that are acting on the organism, we find that we have to deal with things like climate, soil, plants, and such like factors common to all biological situations; but we also find, always, very important environmental influences that we can only class as “cultural”, which modify the physical and biological factors.
158. We thus easily get into great difficulties from the necessity of viewing culture, at one moment, as a part of the man and, at another moment, as a part of the environment.
159. Unaware that their own ability has developed through the years, they assume the new generation of young people must be hopeless in this respect. 160 Since this concern about the decline and fall of the English language is not perceived as a generation phenomenon but rather as something new and peculiar to today's young people, it natrually follows that today's English teachers cannot be doing their jobs.
161. With socialists demanding an end to‘wage slavery’anarchists singing the praises of the virtues of dynamite, middle-of-the-roaders like Samuel Gompers and McGuire.
162. The quick adoption of the scheme may have indicated less about the state lawmaker’s respect for working people than about a fear of risking their anger.
163. In the old days, children were familiar with birth and death as part of life. This is perhaps the first generation of American youngsters who have never been close by during the birth of a baby and have never experienced the death of a family member.
164. We found out that patients who had been dealt with openly and frankly were better able to cope with the approach of death and finally to reach a true stage of acceptance prior to death.
165. The statuses we assume often vary with the people we encounter, and change through life.
166. This means that we fit out actions to those of other people based on a constant mental process of appraisal and interpretation.
167. I would keep putting my dream to the test-even though it meant living with uncertainty and fear of failure.
168. Any attempt to trace the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words?”
169. This self-imitation leads on to deliberate imitation of sounds made to them by other people.”
170. Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to cold cash, affect motivation and creativity.
171. But it’s easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards.
172. The fridge’s effect upon the environment has been evident, while its contribution to human happiness has been insignificant.
173. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.
174. As the intelligence of robots increase to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers.
175. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the construction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of people, will be within our power.
176. Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations.
177. If they are not sincere and do not practise what they preach, their children may grow confused and emotionally insecure when they grow old enough to think for themselves, and realize they have been to some extent fooled.
178. For all these reasons, reading newspapers efficiently, which means getting what you want from them without missing things you need but without wasting time, demands skill and self-awareness as you modify and apply the techniques of reading.
179. “In Japan, a most competitive society with stronger discipline than ours.” Says Isaac Stern. “children are ready to test their limits every day in many fields, including music.”
180. What does the phrase ‘learning to use a computer’ mean? It sounds like ‘learning to drive a car’; that is , it sounds as if there is some set of definite skills that, once acquired, enable one to use a computer. 第十部分（181-200 句译文） 181. The view over a valley of a tiny village with thatched(草盖的) roof cottages around a church; a drive through a narrow village street lined with thatched cottages painted pink or white; the sight over the rolling hills of a pretty collection of thatched farm buildings——these are still common sights in parts of England.
182. Competition is not only good in itself, it is the means by which other basic American values such as individual freedom, equality of opportunity, and hard work are protected.
183. The function of teaching is to cerate the conations and the climate that will make it possible for children to devise the most efficient system for teaching themselves to read.
184. Learning to read is made easier when teachers create an environment where children are given the opportunity to solve the problem of learning to read by reading.
185. The source of this interference remains unconfirmed, but increasingly, experts are pointing the blame at portable electronic devices such as portable computers, radio and cassette players and mobile telephones.
186. And although some airlines prohibit passengers from using such equipment during take-off and landing, most are reluctant to enforce a total ban, given that many passengers want to work during flights.
187. The rise of multinational corporations, global marketing, new communications technologies, and shrinking cultural differences have led to an unparalleled increase in global public relation or PR.
188. The progress from a rattle used by a baby in 3000 BC to one used by an infant today, however, is not characterized by inventiveness.
189. Bent stripes, called chevrons painted on the roads make drivers think that they are driving faster than they really are, and thus drivers slow down.
190. Therefore, the task for DDB Needham was to encourage consumers to consider other aspects of train in order to change their attitudes and increase the likelihood that trains would be considered for travel in the west.
191. These ads were strategically placed among family-oriented TV shows and programs involving nature and America in order to most effectively reach target audiences.
192. Why does cream go bad faster than butter? Some researchers think they have the answer, and it comes down to the structure of the food, not its chemical composition-a finding that could help rid some processed foods of chemical preservatives.
193. If FIFA, football’s international ruling body, wants to improve the standard of refereeing at the next World Cup, it should encourage referees to keep their eyes on the action from a distance, rather than rushing to keep up with the ball, the researcher argues.
194. While still in its early stages, welfare reform has already been judged a great success in many states at least in getting people off welfare.
195. But for many, the fact that poor people are able to support themselves almost as well without government aid as they did with it is in itself a huge victory.
196. Americans are proud of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general.
197. Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships.
198. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support——financial aid, material resources, and needed services-that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems.
199. I headed off to college sure I was going to have an advantage over those students who went to big engineering “factories” where they didn’t care if you have values or were flexible.
200. Recycling also stimulates the local economy by creating jobs and trims the pollution control and energy costs of industries that make recycled products by giving them a more refined raw material.