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2015年秋高一英语(人教版)必修一教学课件:Unit 1 Friendship Grammar


After hiding hereFrank for a My name is Anne My My only family true and friend I areis long time, I’ve and my family isbecome Jewish. Kitty hiding —in my Amsterdam. diary. crazy about nature.
She said that her name was Anne She said that after hiding there she and her only her true family friend Frank and her family was Jewish. for aKitty long time, she had become were was hiding — her in Amsterdam. diary. crazy about nature.

引述别人的话语一般用两种方式: 一是原 封不动地引用原话, 放在引号内, 叫直接引 语(Direct speech); 一是用自己的话加以转 述, 这叫间接引语(Indirect speech)。 Anne said: “My name is Anne Frank and my family is Jewish.” (Direct speech) She said that she and her family were hiding in Amsterdam. (Indirect speech)

Look at these sentences. Can you find the difference between direct speech and indirect speech? 1. “I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary,” said Anne. (Direct speech) Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary. (Indirect speech)

2. “Does a friend always have to be a person?” the writer asks us. The writer asks us if a friend always has to be a person. 3. Anne’s sister asked her what she called her diary. (Indirect speech) “What do you call your diary?” Anne’s sister asked her. (Direct speech)

4. Father asked Anne why she had gone to bed so late the night before. “Why did you go to bed so late last night?” Father asked Anne.

Look at the sentences and find the rules. 1. She often says, “All men and women are equal under the law.” She often says (that) all men and women are equal under the law.

1. 直接引语转变为间接引语时, 从句 由that引导, 可省略; 主句动词为一般 将来时或现在时, 从句动词时态不变。

2. “I like reading stories,” said John. John said that he liked reading stories. 3. “I don’t like cars,” Sarah said to him. Sarah told him that she didn’t like cars. 2. 直接引语转变为间接引语时,人称要 进行相应变化;且主句动词为一般过 去时时,从句动词时态应为过去时的 相应时态。

直接引语里的第一人称和第二人称,变间

接引语时,人称要做相应调整。如:
1. She said, “I am hungry.”

She said she was hungry.
2. Mum said to me, “You can do it yourself.”

Mum told me that I could do it myself.
3. Mr. Smith said, “He is a good worker.’’ Mr. Smith said that he was a good worker.

1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.”
Jack told me that __ I looked worried that day.

2. We said to her, “They’re cleaning the room.”
they were cleaning the room. We told her that ____

3. Mr. Black said, “I have walked a long way.”

he had walked a long way. Mr. Black said that __

直接引语变间接引语时,间接引语的时态 要与主句的时态一致。

1. 主句为一般现在时, 现在完成时或一般
将来时的时候, 间接引语时态不变。 He says, “I treat you as my son.”

He says that he treats me as his son.

2. 主句为过去时, 从句要跟着相应的变化。
直接引语(变化前) 间接引语(变化后)

一般现在时 一般过去时 “I know it,” he said. He said he knew it. 现在进行时 “I’m making coffee for you all,” she said. 过去进行时 She said she was making coffee for us all.

直接引语(变化前) 现在完成时 “I have seen her before,” said he.

间接引语(变化后) 过去完成时 He said he had seen her before.

过去完成进行时 现在完成进行时 He said he had He said, “I have been been doing it for doing it for hours.” hours.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后) 过去完成时 He said he had seen her the previous Monday.

一般过去时 “I saw her last Monday,” he said.

过去进行时 过去完成进行时 “I was waiting for She said she had been Jim,” she said. waiting for Jim.

直接引语(变化前) 一般将来时 He said: “We shall start tomorrow.” 过去完成时 “Rick had been ill for many days till he died.” Jack said.

间接引语(变化后) 过去将来时 He said they would start the next day. 过去完成时 Jack said Rick had been ill for many days till he died.

一般现在时 现在完成时 现在进行时 一般将来时 一般过去时
过去完成时 过去进行时

一般过去时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去将来时 过去完成时

不变

1. “It is really cold,” she said to me.
She told me that it ____ was really cold.

2. “I don’t want to go there with Alice,”
said Tom. Tom said that he ______ didn’t want to go

there with Alice.

3. The boy said, “I will be a pilot.” The boy said that he would ________ be a pilot.”

4. Tom said, “We are listening to music.”
Tom said that they ______________ were listening to music. 5. Mike said, “I have finished my homework.” Mike said _____________ he had finished his homework.

时 间 状 语

间接引语 now then today that day this week that week yesterday the day before last week the week before four days ago four days before tomorrow the next day next month the next month the day after tomorrow in two days’ time the day before yesterday two days before

直接引语

直接引语 指示代词 地点状语
this
these

间接引语
that
those

here
come bring

there
go

方向性动词

take

They asked, “Is it easy to solve the problem?”

They asked if / whether it is easy to solve the problem

was They asked if it was easy to solve the problem.

He asked, “When do you harvest the wheat?” He asked when you harvest the wheat. we harvested

They asked when we harvested the wheat.

注意:
疑问句变为间接引语时, 除了要把疑 问语序改为陈述语序, 由whether/if 或特殊疑问词引导外, 人称、时态和 状语等也要作相应地变化。

Change the first four sentences from direct speech into indirect speech and the rest from indirect speech into direct speech. 1. “I don’t know the address of my new home,” said Anne. Anne said that she didn’t know the address of her new home.

对……厌烦

2. “I’ve got tired of looking at nature

through dirty curtains and dusty
windows,” Anne said to her father.

Anne told her father that she had got
tired of looking at nature through

dirty curtains and dusty windows.

打包

手提箱

3. “I need to pack up my things in the suitcase very quickly,” the girl said. The girl said that she needed to pack up her things in the suitcase very quickly. 4. “Why did you choose your diary and old letters?” her father asked her.

Her father asked her why she chose / had chosen her diary and old letters.

5. Mother asked her if/whether she was very hot with so many clothes on. “Are you very hot with so many clothes on?” Mother asked/said to her. 6. Margot asked her what else she had hidden under her overcoat.

“What else have you hidden under your overcoat?” Margot asked her.

7. Anne asked her father when they would go back home. “When shall we go back home?” Anne asked her father.

8. Father asked Anne why she had talked so much to that boy. “Why did you talk so much to that boy?” Father asked Anne.

直接引语变间接引语,下列情况时态不变:
不变的真理 The teacher said, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher said that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.

经常的习惯 He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes two packs every day.

直接引语为一般过去时并且与具体时间 状语连用: The teacher said, “The baby was born in 2010.” → The teacher said the baby was born in 2010.

部分情态动词, 如: must, ought to, used

to, had better 等。
She said to me, “You must hurry up.” → She said that I must hurry up.

如果在当地转述, here 不必改为 there, 动词 come 不必改为 go。如果在当天 转述, yesterday/tomorrow 等时间状语 也不必改变。
A: You needn’t come here tomorrow. B: What did she say? C: She said that you needn’t come here tomorrow.

Pair work. One of you will be a child and the other the grandmother. The grandmother is listening to a weather report with her grandchild. Try to use indirect speech in your dialogue.

Beijing Shanghai

rain cloudy

16℃~ 24℃ 23℃ ~ 28℃ 26℃ ~ 33℃ 22℃ ~ 30℃

Guangzhou
Chongqing

sunny
foggy

Changchun

overcast

12℃~ 22℃

GM: What’s the weather in Beijing tomorrow? I can’t hear the man clearly on the TV. GC: That’s all right, I can help. The man said… GM: What did he say about Shanghai? GC: …

Complete the following sentences. 1. The teacher asked the girl, “Why are you crying here?” why ___ she ____ was The teacher asked the girl ____ there crying _____. 2. “When will the plane take off?” I wondered. I wondered _____ _____ ____ when ___ the _____ plane would take off ___.

3. “Have you seen our plane yourself?” he asked the boy. seen He asked the boy whether _______ he __ had ___ ____ their plane himself _____ _______.

4. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east?” whether the sun The teacher asked her _______ _____ rises in the east.

Review the rules of direct
speech and indirect speech.


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