伤城文章网 > 英语 > [语法复习专题四]形容词和副词[高中英语语法复习专题四]形容词和副词(语法介绍+精解+专项练习+答案)


一、考点聚焦 1、形容词、副词的作用与位置 形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词 则用来修饰形容词、 动词, 其他副词或者句子, 一般位于形容词之前, 动词之后或句子之首。 以下属几种特殊情况,须牢记; (1)形容词短语作定语,定语后置。 a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high (2)表语形容词(afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive 等)作定语,定语后置。 如 a man alive。有些表身体健康状况的形容词如 well、faint、ill 只作表语。sick 既可作表语 又可作定语,ill 如作定语意为“bad” 。 (3) 用作定语, 修饰由不定代词 one、 no、 any、 some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything、 something 等时,通常后置。如: I have something important to tell you. (4)else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。 (5) enough、 nearby 修饰名词前置或后置, 程度副词一般位于形容词、 副词前面, enough 修饰形容词、副词时,必须后置。 (6)几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。如: We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday. (7)频度副词如 often、always、usually 等在 be 动词后,行为动词前。 (8)副词作定语,定语后置。如: The person there is waiting for you. (9)几个并列的形容词作定语,其语序通常为:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size (大小) + shape (形状) + age (年龄、 时间) + color (颜色) + origin (国籍、 来源) + material (材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词。如: a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man’s first tow interesting little red French oil paitings (10)以-ly 结尾的词性辨析。

①下列单词以-ly 结尾, 但却是形容词而非副词: lively、 lonely、 lovely、 deadly、 friendly、 ugly、silly、likely、brotherly、timely 等。 ②表愿意(无-ly)和引申意(有-ly)的副词: deep 深 deeply 深入地 wide 宽广 widely 广泛地 high 高 highly 高度地 low 位置低 lowly 地位卑微

③有无-ly 意义大不相同的副词: dead 完全,绝对 be dead asleep deadly 非常 be deadly tired pretty 相当 be pretty certain that… prettily 漂亮地 be prettily dressed close 近 Don’t sit close. closely 密切地 Watch closely!

late 晚、迟 arrive late, come late lately 最近 I haven’t seen him lately(recently). 2、复合形容词的构成 (1)形容词 + 名词 + ed kind-hearted 好心的,white-haired 白发的 (2)形容词 + 形容词 red-hot 炽热的,dark-blue 深蓝的 (3)形容词 + 现在分词 good-looking 好看的,easy-going 随和的 (4)副词 + 现在分词 hard-working 勤劳的,fast-moving 快速转动的 (5)副词 + 过去分词 hard-won 得来不易的,newly-made 新建的 (6)名词 + 形容词 life-long 终生的,world-famous 世界闻名的 (7)名词 + 现在分词 peace-loving 爱好和平的,fun-loving 爱开玩笑的

(8)名词 + 过去分词 snow-covered 白雪覆盖的,hand-made 手工的 (9)数词 + 名词 + ed four-storeyed 4 层楼的,three-legged 3 条腿的 (10)数词 + 名词(名词用单数) ten-year 10 年的,two-man 两人的 3、形容词和副词的比较等级 (1)原级的构成和用法。 构成:形容词、副词的原级即本身。 用法: 表示双方在程度、 性质、 特征等某方面相等时, 用 “as + 原级形容词/副词 + as” 的结构;表示双方不相等时,用“not so(as) + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示一方是 另一方的若干倍时,用“倍数 + as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构。如: Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu. This building looks not so (as)high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you . This room is three times as large as that one. (2)比较级和最高级的构成。 掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则,熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。 (3)比较级的用法。 ①对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如: This picture is more beautiful than that one. ②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。如: This room is less beautiful than that one. ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如 even、a lot、a bit、a little、still、much、far、yet、by fay 等修饰。如: He works even harder than before. 注意:英语的比较级前如无 even、still 或 yet 等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“?一些” 或不译出,一般不可有“更” 。如: She is better than she was yesterday Please come earlier tomorrow.

另注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前 面,应在二者中间加“the” 。如: He is taller by far than his brother. He is by far the taller of the two brothers. ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语) ,the + 比较 级(主语 + 谓语) ”的结构(意为“越??越??” ) 。如: The harder he works, the happier he feels. ⑤不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。 如: The weather is getting colder and colder. The girl becomes more and more beautiful. ⑥某些以-ior 结尾的形容词进行比较时,用 to 代替 than。这些词有 inferior(劣等的, 次的) 、superior(较好的,优于??) 、junior(资历较浅的) 、senior(资格较老的) 、prior (在??之前)等。 He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry. ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复, 我们通常用 that(those)、 one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。 that 指物,one 既可指人又可指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词, 而 one 只能代替 可数名词。 The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one)on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. ⑧倍数表达法。 (A)A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. 这座新楼是 那座旧楼的四倍大(高) 。The new bui9lding is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这 座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍) 。 (B)A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 (C)A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我 们的学校大三倍。用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. (4)最高级的用法。 ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式 一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。如: Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.

He works(the)hardest in his class. ②最高级可被序数词以及 much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、nothing like 等词语所修饰。如: This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest. How much did the secon most expensive hat cost? ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如 excellent、extreme、perfect 等,没有最高级,也不 能用比较级。 ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如: He is the tallest (boy) in his class. ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如: Of all the boys he came (the) earliest. (5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。 ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加冠词。 ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比较,表示“非常” 。如: He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very) The film is most interesting.(most=very) ③表示两者间“较??的一个”比较级前加 the。如: who is the older of the tow boys? ④在“the + 比较级?,the + 比较级?”结构中。 ⑤在 same 前一般要加 the。 ⑥有些形容词前加 the 成为名词。如 the poor、the rich 等。 (6)由 as / so 组成的形容词或副词短语。 ① as much as + 不可数名词数量。 Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons. She could earn as much as ten dollars a week. ②as many as + 可数名词数量 多达 I have as a many as sixteen referrence books. ③as early as 早在 As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island.

④as far as 远到;就??而知(论) We might go as far as (走到)the church and back. As far as I know(就我所知) ,he has been there before. ⑤may (might, could)as well 不妨、不如 Then you might as well stay with us here. ⑥as … as can be 到了最??的程度,极其 They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。 ⑦as … as one can He began to run, as fast as he could. ⑧as … as possible Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible. (7)几组重要的词语辨析。 ①very 和 much 的区别。 (A)可分等级的形容词和副词前使用 very 不用 much。(B)表示 状态的过去分词前用 very。 a very frightened boy, a very tired child, a very complicated problem, 一般的情况下,以-ing、-ed 结尾的分词多用 much、very much / greatly 等修饰。如:We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack’s attitude。 (C)已转化为形容 词的现在分词前用 very。如:very interesting / worrying / exicting。 (D)too 前用 much 或 far, 不用 very。 You are much / far / a lot too nice.另外, 在 too many / much, too few / little 前用 far。 There’s far too little opportunity for adventue these days.We’ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups. (E) 关于原级形容词要记住下列固定的修饰结构: (a) 修饰绝对意义的形容词, 一般不用 very,而用 quite completely、 well、 entirely。 如: quite wrong(mistaken, sure)、 completely dead、quite impossible、quite perfect 等。 (b)修饰以 a-开头的形容词,多有特殊的修饰词: quite alone, very much alone, wide awake, fast asleep, very much afraid。(c)修饰一些特殊形容 词的修饰语有:be well worth, much the same, freezing cold, quite different, terribly cold / frightening。 ②so … that … 与 such … that … 的区别。 so + 形容词 / 副词 + that …

so + 形容词 + a(n)+ 单数可数名词 + that … so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that … such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that …

such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that … such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that … 注意:下列结构中只能用 so 不可用 such,当名词前有 many、much、little、few 等表示 “多、少”的词修饰时,如 so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples 等。 但当 little 表示 “小” 时用 such。 如: These are such little boys that they can’t dress themselves. 下列 so 的用法是错误的:so a diffcult problem,so difficult problems, so hot weather。 ③其他几组词的辨析。 (A)ago、before:ago 表示以现在为起点的“以前” ;before 指以 过去或将来的某时刻为起点的“以前” 。泛指“以前”用 before 而不用 ago。 (B)already、 yet、still:already 表示某事已经发生;yet 表示期待某事发生;still 表示某事还在进行,主要 用于肯定句。 (C)too、also、either:too 和 also 用于肯定句,too 多用于口语,also 多用于书面语,either 用于否定句。(D)good、well:与 good 不同的是,well 作形容词,只能在系动词后作表语,表 示“身体状况好” ,也作副词修饰动词。(E)quick、fast:作形容词皆表“快” 。fast 多指运动的 物体, 含持续的意思。 quick 多指一次动作的敏捷、 突然, 而且持续的时间较短。 (F)real、 true: 形容词表“真的” 。real 强调真实存在的而不是幻想的,在句中常作定语;true 指与事实标 准和实际情况相符合,在句中作表语或定语。(G)hard、difficult:均表“困难” ,但 hard 通常 指体力上困难;difficult 则指智力或技能上的困难,困难程度大于 hard。它们都可作定语和 表语。 二、精典名题导解 选择填空 1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.(NMET 2001) A. an art much as C. as an art much as B. much an art as D. as much an art as

解析:答案为 D。本题可从考查形容词的同级比较点入手。在同级比较 as…as 句式中, 如果 as 后面的形容词作定语且其所修饰的名词前有不定冠词时, 该冠词须置于形容词之后, 即形成“as + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + as”结构。这道题在名词专题中也有解析, 不同的是观察视角不同,应注意培养发散思维。 2. It is always difficult being in a foreign country, __________if you don’t speak the language.(NMET 2000) A. extremely B. naturally C. basically D. especially

解析:答案为 D。本题考查副词的词义辨析。注意掌握词语的准确含义,结合语境进行 分析。A 项意为“极端地” ;B 项意为“自然地” ;C 项“基本上” ;D 项“尤其,特别地” 。 根据句意“如果你不会讲(它的)语言,在国外你就总会困难重重”可知答案。 3. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ______known for his plays.(NMET 1998) A. the best B. more C. better D. the most

解析:答案为 C。本题考查副词的比较级和最高级。要把握句式之间的联系,抓住句子 的隐藏信息,结合语境进行分析。根据句意,句中 but 后应有一词组 be well known for…。 同时,应注意到前后两个分句把 professor White 的短篇小说和戏剧进行了对比,故应用 well 的比较级。 4.I must be getting fat—I can A. fairly B. hardly do my trousers up. C. nearly D. seldom

解析: 答案为 D。 本题考副词, 且继续使用了破折号, 对前句解释说明。 句中的 “do up” 指“系上、扣上、包扎上”等意,故全句合理的意思是:我几乎系不上裤子了, (因此)我 一定在发胖。B 项 hardly 是“几乎不”的意思,正合题意。 5. The house smells as if it hasn’t been lived in for years. B. little wooden white D. wooden white little

A. little white wooden C. white wooden little

解析:答案为 A。本题考名词前置定事的排序。多个词同时作前置定语时,排列规律一 般是:代词性定语+冠/指示/物主/所有格+数词(先序后基)+形容词+国籍/材料/用途形容词 或名词或动名词+被修饰的名词,其中数个形容词同时出现时,多用下列顺序:性质+大小+ 形状+新旧+颜色, 有时也要看与名词的密切关系, 越密切, 越靠近名词。 按上文所述, wooden 表材料,放在最后,white 表颜色,放在 little 之后,故选 A。 6. That doesn’t sound very frightening, Paul. I’ve seen about the film? A. better B. worse C. best D. worst . What did you like most

解析:答案为 B。考查比较级的用法,由句意可知,我还见过比 frightening 更糟的,故 选 B。

第三章 形容词和副词 一、基础练习 1. If I had___, I’d visit Europe, stopping at all the small interesting places. A. a long enough holiday B. an enough long holiday C. a holiday enough long D. a long holiday enough 2. These oranges taste___. A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well 3. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard___. A. the better voice B. a good voice C. the best voice D. a better voice 4. I’d be___, if you could give me an early reply. A. pleasant B. grateful C. satisfied D. helpful 5. Those T-shirts are usually $35 each, but today they have a (an)___price of $19 in the shopping center. A. regular B. special C. cheap D. ordinary 6. Mr Smith bought a___purse for his wife. A. small black leather B. black leather small C. small leather black D. black small leather 7. —— How was your job interview? —— Oh, I couldn’t feel___. I hardly found proper answers to most of the questions they asked. A. better B. easier C. worse D. happier 8. Longjing tea, Jasmine tea and Wuyi tea are all famous,but which do you think____ _? A. tastes best B. smells most C. sounds best D. drinks mostly 9. —— Can Li Hua help me with my English? —— I regret to tell you her English is_____yours. A. as good as B. no more than C. no better than D. as much as 10. Although he sometimes loses his temper, his students like him_____for it. A. not so much B. not so little C. no more D. no less 11. When they came in, Mr Harris______like a baby. Nobody would like to wake him from a good dream,because he needed rest. A. fell asleep B. was sound asleep C. got asleep D. went to sleep 12. This year they have produced___ grain ___they did last year. A. as less; as B. as few; as C. less; than D. fewer; than 13. —— Can I help you? —— Well, I’m afraid the box is___heavy for you,but thank you all the same. A. so B. much C. very D. too 14. —— How did you find your visit to the museum? —— I thoroughly enjoy it. It was_____than I expected. A. far more interesting B. even much interesting C. so far interesting D. a lot much interesting 15. —— Would you like some wine?—— Yes, just_____. A. little B. very little C. a little D. little bit 16. It takes a long time to go there by train; it’s ____by road.

A. quick B. the quickest C. much quick D. quicker 17. If there were no examinations, we should have___at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier timeC. much happiest time D. a much happier time 18. I’m surprised that you should have been fooled by such a(an)_____trick. A. ordinary B. easy C. smart D. simple 19. The salesman showed her several bags and she chose___one as she didn’t want to spend too much money on it. A. the less expensive B. less expensive C. the least expensive D. least expensive 20. _____box cannot be lifted by a boy of five. A. So a heavy B. So heavy a C. A such heavy D. Such heavy a 21. If the manager had to choose between the two, he would say John was ___choice. A. good B. the best C. better D. the better 22. It was_____late to catch a bus after the party, there fore we called a taxi. A. too very B.much too C. too much D. far 23. Greenland, _____island in the world, covers even two million square kilometers. A. it is the largest B. that is the largest C. is the largest D. the largest 24. —— Mum, I think I’m _____ to get back to school. —— Not really, my dear. You’d better stay at home for another day or two. A. so well B. so good C. well enough D. good enough 25. Dracula and Frankenstein are_____film characters. A. frighten B. frightened C. frightening D. frightenly 26. When they heard the bad news, they all looked__at the master and felt quite__. A. sad; sad B. sadly; sadly C. sad; sadly D. sadly; sad 27. The storm kept me_____all through the night. A. awake B. awoke C. awaked D.awoken 28. —— What do you think of the concert?—— Oh, it was_____success. A. a very B. quite a C .so D. really 29. My_____brother is two years_____than I. A. older; older B. elder; older C. older; elder D. elder; elder 30. I haven’t seen_____this since I collected stamps. A. as old a stamp as B. so an old stamp as C. stamp as old as D. as an old stamp as 二、提高练习 1. To plant the tree, we must dig _____. A. a three feet deep hole B. three-foot-deep a hole C. a hole three feet deep D. a three-feet-deep hole 2. I think he is one of the best men you've ____ found. A, never B. already C. ever D. once 3. ____ the boy’s grown! He is almost ___ his father. A. What, as tall as B. What, taller than C. How, as tall as D. How, taller than 4. I haven’t got ____ nails to mend the cupboard. I need another three of them. A. enough big B. big enough C. much bigger D. many enough 5. Henry knows little of physics _________ of chemistry.

A. as well as B. no less than C. and still more D. and still less 6. — The dish is delicious! — Well, at least it's ___ the one I cooked yesterday. A. as bad as B. no worse than C. as well as D. no better than 7. — Do you think the weather is good enough for a picnic? — Yes. You couldn't hope for ____ at this time of the year. A. a nice day B. the nice day C. a nicer day D. the nicest day 8. It makes Thomas no better, and it makes you ____ A. best B. good C. well D. worse 9. With the help of the new equipment, our factories produced ___ VCD players in 2000 as the year before. A. as many as twice B. twice more than C. as twice many D. twice as many 10. I had invited 50 guests to the party, but actually twice ____ came. A. more than B. as many C. as much D. less than 11. — Why didn't you go to the cinema last night? — It was something ____ interesting. A. far less B. more or less C. much more D. any further 12. The population of many Alaskan cities has _____ doubled in the past five years. A. larger than B. more than C. as greatly as D. as much as 13. — This is a good place for a picnic. — Yes, it couldn't be ____ . A. better B. best C. worst D. worse 14. — How do you like your teacher of English? — Well, no one teaches _____ here. A. well B. poorly C. best D. better 15. In the poor parts of America's big cities there is a lot of crime, _____ . A. and much of it is serious B. much of it is serious C. and many more is serious D. more of it is serious 16. — Do you like cats? — Of course. They are ____ a kind of pet. They can do much good for their masters. A. better than B. more than C. no more than D. no better than 17. The newly-built theatre is ____ the old one. A. as twice big as B. twice more bigger than C. twice the size of D. twice so big as 18. I'm afraid that your conclusion is ____ from correct. A. far B. free C. different D. short 19. Thank you very much. It's ____ of you. A. kindest B. a most kind C. the most kind D. most kind 20. Whoever is never _____ with the progress he has made will be a success. A. content B. proud C. praised D. enough 21. My teacher has three brothers, all _____ than he. George, _____, is an officer. A. elder, the eldest B. old, the oldest C. elder, the old one D. older, the eldest

22. You shouldn't be too ___ about things you are not supposed to know. A. strange B. amusing C. curious D. conscious 23. The new research team was led by the ____ engineer. A. main B. major C. chief D. primary 24. These T-shirts are usually $ 35 each but today they have a ___ price of $19 in the shopping centre. A. regular B. special C. cheap D. particular 25. It is a good way for us to memorize new words by seeing them_____. A. properly B. repeatedly C. clearly D. usually 26. — Why did she spend so much time searching shop after shop for a blouse? — Oh, she was very ____ about her clothes, A. special B. particular C. especial D. unusual 27. Football fans are _____ young people between the ages of fifteen and twenty. A. most B. almost C. mostly D. at most 28. It’s very _____ to let the old have seats on the bus. A. thoughtful B. useful C. careful D. funny 29. — Mr. Zhang, can I talk to you ____ about my composition? — Sure. How about Thursday afternoon? A. somewhere B. somehow C. sometime D. sometimes 30. The early train is ____ to leave at five in the morning. A. possible B. due C. probable D. sure 31. He enjoys a cup of coffee sometimes, but ____ he drinks tea. A. most B. almost C. nearly D. mostly 32. It’s _____ necessary for people to know the importance of protecting all the wildlife. A. very B. rather C. quite D. too 33. These plastic flowers look so ___ that many people think they are real. A. natural B. similar C. splendid D. fresh 34. — How can I get to the island? — You can' t get there ___ by swimming. A. more than B. other than C. rather than D. less than 35. Of the two pictures, the left one looks ______ at a distance. A. the better B. the best C. a little good D. better 36. If you wish to study hard, you must see films _____. A. more often B. oftener C. less often D. fewer often 37. — Let's take a walk before lunch. — Oh, I think it's _____ for walking. A. much too hot B. too much hot C. very much hot D. very much heat 38. I bought a _____ table the day before yesterday. A. small round wooden B. small wooden round C. round wooden small D. round small wooden 39. It was a wonder that _____ little food saved _____ many lives during the war. A. so, such B. such, so C. so, so D. such, such 40. Nurses are required to look after _____. A. sick and wound B. sick and wounded

C. the sick and wound D. the sick and wounded 参考答案: 一、1.A2.A 3.D4.B5.B6.A7.C8.A9.C10.D 11.B12.C13.D14.A 15.C。用 a little 表示“少许”。 16.D。题意为“乘火车去那儿要花很长时间;乘汽车更快些。” 17.D。 题意为“假如没有考试的话, 我们在学校就会更快乐。 ”暗含比较的意味, 故选 D。 18.D。题意为“你竟然被这么一个简单的花招所骗,真令我吃惊。”trick“计谋,花招, 诡计”。 19.C。题意为“因为她不想花太多的钱买袋子,故挑了一个最便宜的。” 20.B。表示“如此重的箱子”可以用“so heavy a box”或“such a heavy box”。 21.D。两者中较好的一个应用 the+better。 22.B。本题为“too...to” 结构;much too 修饰形容词、副词,而 too much 修饰不可数 名词或单独使用。 23.D。the largest island in the world 为 Greenland 的同位语。 24.C。表示“身体健康的”用 well。 25.C。 表示“令人感到恐怖的”, 用 frightening; 表示“ (人) 感到恐怖的”, 用 frightened。 26.D。修饰 look at 用 sadly;feel 为系动词,用 sad 作表语。 27.A。awake 是形容词作宾补。 28.B。quite a , quite some 用以指人或物不寻常,如 We had quite a party.(我们的聚 会不一般。)It must be quite some car.(那辆车可不比寻常。) 29.B。指兄弟姐妹中“年长的、年龄较大的”用 elder;而表示“年龄比……大”则用 older。 30.A。表示“象这么旧的邮票”可用以 下形式表达:as old a stamp as this; a stamp as old as this; 否定句中前一个 as 可用 so。 二、1-10: CCCAD BCDDB 11-20: ABADA BCADA 21-30: DCCBB BCACB 31-40: DCABA CAACD



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